granting modest advantages to minorities and women is more than fair, given hundreds of years of discrimination that benefited whites and men." (Fromkin) Affirmative Action is not only justifiable, but it is necessary in today's world. Affirmative Action can be seen throughout United States History as a leading fighter for equal opportunity. Affirmative Action can assist in creating a more equal opportunity for people regarding higher education, employment and the work force, and creating a more diverse equal community in all aspects. Affirmative Action, in contrast to many people's beliefs, does not promote "reverse discrimination" or create quotas for groups to adhere to. On the contrary, it gives minorities and women the opportunity to have jobs and positions they are already qualified for. Affirmative Action "calls for minorities and women to have special consideration in employment, education, and contracting decisions"(Fromkin). Although the name "affirmative action" has only been applied in recent times, there is a history of affirmative action actions taken in the United States. This history is an example for the endless fight for equality among women and all minorities. These actions can be seen in amendments to the constitution, especially the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 19th amendments. They abolished slavery, granted citizenship to the former slaves, that the right for United States citizens to vote can not be denied or reduced on the account of race or color, and lastly the 19th amendment gave women the right to vote. Furthermore, the Civil Rights Act of 1964, title VI, states that the use of literacy or other voter-qualifications cannot be used to keep any minority off the voting lists, reassuring an equal voice in the democracy of the US. In addition, former President Johnson and Kennedy used executive orders 11246 and 10925 to show government support of affirmative action through the "equal employment opportunity" and the establishment of...
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