Adolescence Theories and Comparison

Topics: Developmental psychology, Adolescence, Sociology Pages: 30 (9074 words) Published: May 20, 2012
Overview, Historical Background and Theoretical Perspectives Overview and Background

Adolescence is a developmental transition between childhood and adulthood. It is the period from puberty until full adult status has been attained. In our society, adolescence is a luxury. It is reported that the real reason there is the developmental period of adolescence was to delay young people from going into the workforce, due to the scarcity of jobs. There are also varying views on the actual time line of adolescence-especially about when it ends. Typically, we view adolescence beginning at puberty and ending at 18 or 21 years. Others suggest that there is a period of late adolescence that extends well into what is now known as the period of young adulthood.

G. Stanley Hall's Biogenetic Psychology of Adolescence
G. Stanley Hall (1844-1924), was the first psychologist to advance a psychology of adolescence in its own right and to use scientific methods to study them. He defined this period to begin at puberty at about 12 or 13 years, and end late, between 22 years to 25 years of age. Hall also described adolescence as a period of Sturm und Drang," -- storm and stress." In German literature, the period of sturm und drang includes the works of Schiller and the early writings of Goethe. It is a literary movement full of idealism, commitment to a goal, revolution against the old, expression of personal feelings, passion and suffering. Hall saw an analogy between the objectives of this group of young writers at the turn of the eighteenth century and the psychological characteristics of adolescence. According to Hall's analogy and expansion of Darwin's concept of biological "evolution." into a psychological theory of recapitulation, adolescence corresponds to a time when the human race was in a turbulent transitional stage. (Muuss, 1975, pp.33-35) In this theory, Hall stated that the experiential history of the human species had become part of the genetic structure of each individual. The law of recapitulation claimed that the individual organism, during its development passes through states that correspond to those that occurred during the history of mankind. To sum up, the individual relives the development of the human race from early animal like primitivism, through a period of savagery, to the more recent civilized ways of life that characterize maturity. (Muuss, 1975, p. 33) Therefore, Hall described adolescence as a new birth, "for the higher and more completely human traits are now born" (Hall, 1916, xiii).

Hall describes this particular aspect of adolescent development (storm and stress) in detail in a chapter of his book on adolescence --"Feelings and Psychic Evolution." He saw the emotional life of the adolescent as an oscillation between contradictory tendencies. Energy, exaltation, and supernatural activity are followed by indifference, lethargy, and loathing. Exuberant gaiety, laughter, and euphoria make place for dysphoria. depressive gloom, and melancholy. Egoism, vanity, and conceit are just as characteristic of this period of life as are abasement, humiliation, and bashfulness. Hall believed that adolescent characteristics contained both the remnants of an uninhibited childish selfishness and an increasing idealistic altruism. The qualities of goodness and virtue are never so pure, but never again does temptation preoccupy the adolescent's thinking. Hall described the adolescenct as wanting solitude and seclusion, while he finds himself entangled in crushes and friendships. Never again does the peer group have such a strong influence over the person. The adolescent also moves between the exhibition of several personality traits including exquisite sensitivity and tenderness at some points in time to callousness and cruelty at other times. The display of apathy and inertia also vacillate with enthusiastic curiosity, along with the urge to discover and explore. According...

References: Bandura, A. (1964). The stormy decade: fact or fiction? Psychology in the Schools 1964(1), 224-231.
Barker, R.G., et al
Benedict, R. (1950). Continuities and discontinuities in cultural conditioning. In W.E. Martin & C.B. Stendler, eds., Readings in child development. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Brittain, C.V. (1963). Adolescent choices and parent-peer cross-pressures. American Sociological Review, (28), 385-391.
Coleman, J.S. (1961). The adolescent society. New York: Free Press of Glencoe.
Davis, A. (1944). Socialization and adolescent personality. In Adolescence, Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 1944 (43) Part I.
Erikson, E.H. (1950). Childhood and society. New York: W.W. Norton.
_______. (1959). Identity and the life cycle: Selected papers. Psychological Issues Monograph Series I., No. 1. New York: International Universities Press, 1959.
_______, ed. (1965). The challenge of youth. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
_______.(1968). Identity: youth and crisis. New York: W.W. Norton.
Freud, A.. (1948). The ego and the mechanism of defense. (C. Baines, trans.). New York: International Universities Press.
Freud, S. (1925). Three contributions to the sexual theory. Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series, No. 7. New York: Nervous and Mental Disease Publishing Co.
Friedenberg, E.Z. (1959). The vanishing adolescent. Boston: Beacon Press.
Hall, G.S. (1916). Adolescence. 2 vols. New York: Appleton.
Havighurst, R.J. (1951). Developmental tasks and education. New York: Longmans, Green.
Hollingworth, L.S. (1928). The psychology of the adolescent. New York: Appleon-Century.
Inhelder, B. and Piaget, J. ()1958). The growth of logical thinking. (A. Parsons and S. Milgram, trans). New York: Basic Books.
Kohlberg, L. (1963). The development of children 's orientations toward a moral order. Vita Humana (6), 11-33.
_______. (1964). Development of moral character and moral ideology. In M. L. Hoffman & L. W. Hoffman, eds., Review of child development research. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
_______. (1970). Moral development and the education of adolescents. In R.F. Purnell, ed., Adolescents and the American high school. New York: Hold, Rinehart & Winston.
Kohlberg, L., and Gilligan, C. (1972). The adolescent as a philosopher. In J. Kagan & R. Coles, eds., Twelve to sixteen: early adolescence. New York: W.W. Norton.
Kohlberg, L., and Kramer, R. (1969). Continuities and discontinuities in childhood and adult moral development. Human Development, (12)93-120.
Lewin, K. (1935). A dynamic theory of personality. New York: McGraw-Hill.
_______. (1939). Field theory and experiment in social psychology: concepts and methods. American Journal of Sociology (44). 868-897.
______. (1942). Field theory and learning. In The psychology of learning, the yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education (41) Part II.
Marcia, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, (3), 551-558.
_______. (1967). Ego identity stqtus: Relationship to change in self-esteem, "general adjustment," and authoritarianism. Journal of Personality (35), 118-133.
Mead, M. (1947). What is happening to the American family? Journal of Social Casework (28), 323-330.
_______. (1949). Male and female. New York: William Morrow.
_______. (1950). Coming of age in Samoa. New York: New American Library.
_______. (1952). Adolescence in primitive and modern society. In G.E. Swanson,T.M. Newcomg, E.L. Hartley, et al., eds., Readings in social psychology. Rev. ed., New York: Henry Holt.
_______. (1953). Growing up in New Guinea. New York: New American Library.
_______. (1961). The young adult. In E. Ginzberg, ed., Values and ideals of American youth. New York: Columbia University Press.
Mead, M., and Macgregor, F.C. (1951). Growth and culture. New York: Putnam, 1951.
Muuss, Rolf E. (1975). Theories of Adolescence, 3rd Edition. New York: Random House.
Offer, D. (1969). The psycholgical world of the teenager. New York: Basic Books.
Piaget, J. (1947a). The moral development of the adolescent in two types of society- primitive and modern. Lecture given to the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Paris.
_______. (1947b). The psychology of intelligence. (M. Piercy & D.E. Berlyne, trans.). New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Rank, O. (1964). Will therapy and truth and reality. New York: Knopf.
Sherif, M. & Cantril. H. (1947). The psychology of ego-involvements. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Spranger, E. Types of men. (P. J. W. Pigoros, trans.). Halle-Saale: Max Niemeyer, 1928.
Continue Reading

Please join StudyMode to read the full document

You May Also Find These Documents Helpful

  • Essay on adolescence
  • Essay on Adolescence
  • comparison of research theories Essay
  • The Comparison and Contrast of Developmental Theories Essay
  • Essay about Comparison of Theory
  • Adolescence Essay
  • Adolescence Essay
  • Counselling Theories Essay

Become a StudyMode Member

Sign Up - It's Free