ADHD Research Paper
Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder is the most commonly diagnosed mental health problem among children. This disorder is often referred to as ADHD. It can be defined as a psychiatric and a neurobehavioral disorder. ADHD has to do with inattentiveness, over-activity, impulsivity, or a combination of all three. It can affect people at any age or gender. There are many different symptoms to determine whether a person has ADHD and although it is a disorder there are different ways to live a normal life with it. Researchers have determined that there are three different types of ADHD. The most common type is referred to as combined ADHD. The kind of ADHD involves all of the symptoms together. The second form of the disorder is inattentive ADHD. This type use to be referred to as ADD. Inattentive ADHD is involved with weak attention spans, lack of focus. The third form o f ADHD is hyper-active impulse ADHD which is linked to hyperactivity and impulsivity without inattentiveness. There are also two common histories for children with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. The first one is the type of child who has been fussy since birth. Children like this are very difficult to deal with. Their parents and or guardians usually have had a time with soothing the child as well as controlling their impulsive behavior. These kids are what people can easily call a handful. The second type of child can be referred to as an immature child. These children have very short attention spans and it is very difficult for them to sit and pay attention. They are very silly and clumsy. They are also the kids who often act out when they are in school. When a child is diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder they usually fit into one of these two categories. There are many different causes of ADHD. Genetics is a factor in a lot of the cases. A child who has ADHD is four times as likely to have a parent or a relative in the family who has ADHD as well. A lot of research has been done that focuses on specific gene that is involved in the transmission of ADHD. Dopamine seems to be the gene that has the most influence in the spread of this disorder. People with ADHD seem to have lower levels of dopamine in their brain. It is also said that different levels of this gene cause thinner brain tissue in the areas of the brain associated with attention. Some researchers also believe the exposure of certain toxic substances can cause Attention-Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. Mothers who use tobacco products and/or drink during their pregnancies run the risk of causing sever developmental problems as well as learning and behavioral problems in their children. Children exposed to lead can also lead to ADHD especially if the child is exposed with in the first 3 years. Young children are vulnerable when it comes to being exposed to toxic chemical because their biological systems have not fully developed. Although this accounts for only a small percentage of people who have been diagnosed with ADHD brain injuries are also a cause of the disorder. Brain injuries normally cause a variety of disorders such as tumors and strokes but researchers have determined that these injuries can also cause ADHD. Trauma in the brain can cause issues with attention and behavior which would be diagnosed as ADHD. Even if a person was never diagnosed with the disorder before they can acquire after a head injury. There are many causes of ADHD floating around. A lot of them are myths and different ideas that scientist and researchers have disapproved. One of the ideas that researchers have disapproved is that Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder can be caused by different components of a child’s diet. It was said the unrefined sugar was a leading cause for this disorder. Although certain additives and sugars can affect a child’s behavior it does not cause ADHD. Some people also believed that an imbalance in hormones can cause ADHD which is not true at all. Hormones have absolutely nothing to do with it. Another popular but false belief is that ADHD can be caused by poor parenting skills. Parenting skills cannot cause the disease but they can have a negative impact on a child who is already diagnosed. There are many different signs of whether or not a child has Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder. The most easily identified symptoms are inattention as well as hyper activity and a lack of focus. These traits can be found in most children at some point in time but they can be viewed as traits of ADHD when this behavior is inappropriate for the child’s age or when the child has become uncontrollable. A child can show traits of inattention in a variety of ways. He or she may often fail to pay attention to details and make lots of careless mistakes in different activities especially their homework. An inattentive kid will also have trouble concentrating during a certain task. They have difficulty completing their homework and other assignments. These kids always seem to not be listening when someone is speaking directly to them. Following directions is not their strong suit. They are unorganized, forgetful and very easily distracted. Signs of hyper activity and impulsivity are also very easy to determine. Hyper active children are usually very fidgety. They can not remain still or seated for long periods of time. They often do things when they are not appropriate like standing when they really should be sitting, or running and jumping when they should quietly be doing something else. Children who suffer from hyperactivity and impulsivity are often very talkative. They often shout things out and can never wait for their turn to speak. Even though it is not always on purpose the usually interrupt people. It is just something that they can’t help but do. It is difficult to control. The symptoms and signs for adults with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder are a little different. Like children, they are usually very unorganized. They tend to drive more recklessly than drivers who do not have the disorder. This causes them to get into car accidents more frequently. Adults who have ADHD are very easily distracted. They have a hard time staying focuses. This is easy to identify while the person is at their workplace. They are also usually never on time and have a difficult time with prioritizing. Grown ups with ADHD also have a hard time relaxing. They are usually restless and very fidgety. They also have very angry and uncontrollable outburst and have poor listening skills. Being diagnosed with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder can affect every aspect of a person’s life. It affects them academically, socially and emotionally. Children and adults share some of the same hardships. ADHD interferes with a person’s ability to learn. The fact that it is challenging for the individual to sit still and concentrate on one certain thing makes it very difficult to retain information. As an adult academics can become very difficult. More is expected from adult students in high school, college and other forms of higher education. Due to the fact that the curriculum and learning experience is different and more difficult it is simple for a person with Attention Deficit- Hyperactivity Disorder to fall behind in school work. This in turn can cause the individual to become discouraged and not want to further their education. A child or adults social life can also be greatly affected by ADHD. As a young child, children with this disorder are considered out of control buy society. These children normally have lots of super vision to make sure that they are not doing anything that they shouldn’t be doing and to keep them in line. They need more discipline then most kids their age. Research also shows that kids with ADHD have poor social skills. They have a hard time communicating with adults around them as well as their peers. As they grow older some of the kids being to act out. As adults ADHD can affect a person’s life even more. The lack of focus and the terrible attention span makes it difficult for these individuals to maintain a health and stable relationship. Research has shown that having ADHD causes marital problems which often lead to divorce. This bad behavior can also make it difficult to keep a job, or a career. Having ADHD can cause great emotional distress. Over half of the people diagnosed with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder have a hard time sorting out their feelings and emotions. This cluster of emotions is referred to as Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation, DESR for short. DESR involves the frustration, the inappropriate angry outburst, and the lack of patience. The frustration is normally due to inattention. They have such a difficult time focusing that they become very agitated. This can also cause the person to be very disappointed in them. The fact that the person is making an effort to do something but the disorder makes it difficult for them causes a lot of stress and anxiety. All of these emotional conflicts can lead a person with ADHD into a deep depression. As the years have gone by researchers have discovered many treatments for people with ADHD. Behavioral treatments have been established to help them monitor their behavior as well as to teach the children how to control their actions and use their manners. There is also a full list of different medications that people who have ADHD can have prescribed to them. Ritalin, Adderall, Vyvanse and Intuniv are some of the most common medications that are being used now days. With focus, the right medication and support from friends and family members a person can live a perfectly normal life even if they are diagnosed with Attention Deficit/ Hyperactivity Disorder.
WORK CITED PAGE
Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 16 Nov. 2012.
"What Causes ADHD/ADD: Genetics, Lifestyle, Environment, Prenatal Care." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.
Cited: PAGE Board, A.D.A.M. Editorial. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. 0000. Web. 16 Nov. 2012. "What Causes ADHD/ADD: Genetics, Lifestyle, Environment, Prenatal Care." WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 05 Dec. 2012.