UNIT 2: Counselling Theory assignment C1
ABC Certificate Counselling skills
Carl Rogers, Born in Chicago in 1902 as the 4th of 6 children in a strict Fundamentalist Christian household. Following a course in clinical and educational psychology at Teachers college, Columbia, working with Leta Hollingsworth, he then moved on to the Rochester Society for the prevention of Cruelty to Children.
Whilst at Rochester, Rogers was influenced by the work of Jessie Taft and Elizabeth Davies both students of Otto Rank, he linked Rank’s work to the idea’s of William H. Kilpatrick, with whom he studied philosophy of Education at Teachers college and John Dewey who said :- “A society which makes provision for participation in its good of all its members on equal terms and which secures flexible readjustment of its institutions through interaction of the different forms of associated life is in so far democratic. Such a society must have a type of education which gives individuals a personal interest in social relationships and control, and the habits of mind which secure social changes without introducing disorder”.
Rogers would have identified with these ideas and whilst he was at Rochester he came to believe in the individual’s capacity to find his own way forward and this belief founded on his own clinical experience, in fact Rogers stated that it was at this time that he began to “realise the possibilities of the individual being self directing”
Tony Merry suggests that Person Centred Counselling has continued to evolve, the first phase from 1940 through to the early 1950’s he calls the “non-directive” phase, the second phase, he calls the “Client Centred” phase from 1950 through till the early 1960’s and lastly the “person Centred” phase from the1960’s till present, though he also believes that we are now entering a fourth phase the “client Centred” phase.
Since the 1950s when Maslow, Rogers and May developed what came to be known as the Humanistic approaches, the world has changed, hopefully to a more democratic society where people have been allowed to, and, want to have a greater say in decisions taken by our political leaders, also society is becoming less confident in so-called “experts” for these reasons the person centred approach is important, however it has it’s limitations, the counselling sessions can be very time consuming if the Gloria video is anything to go by, also the cost could be prohibitive to certain people. Counselling Theory assignment C2
Person Centred Counselling as we know it today has been derived from the teaching and studies of Carl Rogers who felt that the client knew best, and the client who knew what was hurting and ultimately would know how to move forward.
Tony Merry states that person centred counselling is a way of being, based on a particular theory of helping relationships which, in turn rests on deep respect for and trust in the individuals capacity for growth, development and creativity. It has a set of theoretical ideas aimed at exploring the processes of human growth and it has a sophisticated and developing theory of personality. Some of the ideas are as follows.
Actualisation is about the process of growth, in that a plant or an animal will grow into adulthood from a simple form like an egg or a seed, this process will continue, dependant upon the environment or circumstances it finds itself in and the quality of it’s existence will depend on it’s ability to adapt to its environment, whether it be lack of air, light or moisture, from my own experience, I have left seed potatoes in a brown paper bag, in the bowels of my garage, to find a pale leggy shoot poking out of what looks like a shrivelled up walnut of a Seed Potato.
Rogers summed up this theory of actualisation in the following terms.” We are, in short, dealing with an organism which is always motivated, is always 'up to something,' always seeking. So I would reaffirm, perhaps even...
Bibliography: First steps in Counselling, Pete Sanders
Next steps in Counselling, Pete Sanders
Person Centred Counselling in action, Dave Mearns and Brian Thorn
Learning and being in Person centred counselling, Tony Merry
On becoming a person, Carl R. Rogers
Counselling skills and theory, Margaret Hough
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