Were a nomadic group who came from the steppes.
We know about them because of the roots of there language
They tamed horses sheep cattle and goats.
Language: Slavic speakers moved northwest, celtic, german italic moved west and greek and persia went south.
Nobody new they moved from steppes but they started movement from one region to another in 1700 to 1200 bc.
Part of the Indo-europeans broke off and took over Anatolia: they were called the Hittites.
Dominated southwest asia for 450 years.
Adopted then adapted: They took over and then learned from where they conquered from. Blended there tradition with more advanced people.
They used Indo-European language and the languages they picked up from the cities they conquered.
Hittites were successful with iron weapons and chariots (light and fast)
Culture of Sumer:
Breakthroughs: laws, math, architexture, writing, religion, laws MAWRL Specialized workers: Traders Government officials, priest, artisan
Record keeping government more became more complex so they needed to write down important things, they needed scribes.
Irrigation and bronze
Laws: Order and Protection (both criminals and victims), preventative and punitive
1100 bc most powerful traders
Byblos, tyre and sidon were important trading centers
Remarkable ship builders and seafarers
First to venture beyond straight of gibraltar.
Alphabet-Introduced to the greeks
Pheonicia---> Greeks---> Etruscan---> Romans
Traded: Dye, papyrus, ivory, whine, slaves, metals, and weapons.
Trade: dominated trade in eastern Mediterranean 2000 to 14000 bc, traded pottery, swords and figure vessels, exported there art and culture. peaceful Minos was a king who owned half human half bull
Had wall paintings: Nature and sports women were higher ranked then other cultures
Sacrificed bulls and other animals, once even a kid
Mysterious ended in 1200 bc, unnone why