Were a nomadic group who came from the steppes.
We know about them because of the roots of there language
They tamed horses sheep cattle and goats.
Language: Slavic speakers moved northwest, celtic, german italic moved west and greek and persia went south. Nobody new they moved from steppes but they started movement from one region to another in 1700 to 1200 bc. Hittites:
Part of the Indo-europeans broke off and took over Anatolia: they were called the Hittites. Dominated southwest asia for 450 years.
Adopted then adapted: They took over and then learned from where they conquered from. Blended there tradition with more advanced people. They used Indo-European language and the languages they picked up from the cities they conquered. Hittites were successful with iron weapons and chariots (light and fast)
Culture of Sumer:
Breakthroughs: laws, math, architexture, writing, religion, laws MAWRL Specialized workers: Traders Government officials, priest, artisan Record keeping government more became more complex so they needed to write down important things, they needed scribes. Irrigation and bronze
Laws: Order and Protection (both criminals and victims), preventative and punitive
most powerful traders
Byblos, tyre and sidon were important trading centers
Remarkable ship builders and seafarers
First to venture beyond straight of gibraltar.
Alphabet-Introduced to the greeks
Pheonicia---> Greeks---> Etruscan---> Romans
Traded: Dye, papyrus, ivory, whine, slaves, metals, and weapons.
Trade: dominated trade in eastern Mediterranean 2000 to 14000 bc, traded pottery, swords and figure vessels, exported there art and culture. peaceful
Minos was a king who owned half human half bull
Had wall paintings: Nature and sports
women were higher ranked then other cultures
Sacrificed bulls and other animals, once even a kid
Mysterious ended in 1200 bc, unnone why
Mycen in southern greece
Protected wall 20 feet thick
warrior- King ruled
Battle of Marathon: Between greece and persia
10,000 greeks Settled in phalanxes and waited for persia, the persia were much weaker and got destroyed by them
Alexander the Great
His Greek army conquered the Persian Empire, Egypt and had advanced into India. Alexander the Great’s military campaigns spread Greek thought so that it was the basis of Western Civilization for generations to come.
Athenians won the first battle of Marathon
Sparta had a stronger army and Athens had a stronger navy
Spartans marched onto athens territory and burnt food supply Athens a plague sweep through and killed 1/3 of population
signed a peace treaty
415 bc Sparta sent a huge fleet 20,000 soldiers taking down syracuse (athens wealthiest ally) Spartans attacked for 4 more years and Athens lost empire power and there wealth.
Daily life in Sparta:
Government assembled all sparta citizens elected officials and voted on major issues. Two kings over military forces
1st group ruling families who owned lands
2nd noncitizen who were free helots (bottom of social chain) 600bc to 371 bc strongest army in greece
man daily life centered around military, they left home when they were 7 and didn’t come back until 30. girls played sports, ran family estates and had more freedom then the boys
Daily life in Athens:
Leaders were Draco (everyone equal and harsh punishments), Solon (no slaves,4 classes, any citizen can charge another) Cleisthenes (10 groups on location not wealth, everyone has a say in laws, counsel of 500.) All free male adults were citizens
started to teach boys how to be good citizens
taught reading, grammer, poetry, history, math music and athletics. The girls were taught at home with the mothers.
Neolithic Revolutions: Domestication of plants and animals, happened in the fertile crescent. Before Neolithic...
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