The theoretical framework of the study is a structure that
can hold or support a theory of a research work. It presents the theory which explains why the problem under study
Presents theory from which research problem was derived
or to which it is linked
Theoretical basis of the study
The theoretical framework is but a theory that serves as a
basis for conducting research.
How to formulate the
Specify the theory used as basis for the study.
Mention the proponents of the theory.
Cite the main points emphasized in the theory.
Support his exposition of the theory by ideas
from other experts.
Illustrate his theoretical framework by means of
Reiterate his theoretical proposition in the study.
After formulating the theoretical framework, the
researcher has to develop the conceptual
framework of the study.
A concept is an image or symbolic
representation of an abstract idea. Chinn and
Kramer (1999) define a concept as a “complex
mental formulation of experience”.
While the theoretical framework is the theory on
which the study is based, the conceptual
framework is the operationalization of the theory.
between the concepts to be
the summary or map of
Definition of Terms
to include in definitions:
Refer to your title, objectives, and
conceptual framework for the
concepts, variables, constructs, and
terms to be defined
Techniques for defining
definition – “book”
Communication comes from the word
“communis” meaning to “ make
common” (Berlo, 1960).
- by example
- by genus and differentia
- by stipulation
- by operations necessary to
Mass media are mediated means of
communicating to a large audience.
Examples of these are television,
genus and differentia
Full professor vs. teacher
Full professors are teachers of
Level of participation is measured
based on the score in self
assessment test; 71 and above is
high; 41-70 is moderate; and 40 and
below is low.
operations necessary to
undertake the variable
Per capita income is equal to total
income divided by total number of
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