World War 2: History Notes

Topics: Singapore, British Empire, Malaysia Pages: 18 (3420 words) Published: October 12, 2013
History Content Notes

Coverage

British Colonial Rule
-Role of Immigrant communities
Contributions
Chinese Secret Societies
British Governance
System of rule
Chinese Protectorate
Piracy
Police Force
Education, Health and Infrastructure Developments

Japanese Occupation’s Impact on Singapore
- Japanese Invasion and Occupation
Reasons for British Defeat and Japanese Victory
Japanese Occupation and its Impact
Lessons learnt from British Defeat and Japanese Victory

Singapore’s Path to Independence
Return of the British
Postwar problems
Rise of Nationalism
Struggle against British Colonial Rule, 1948-1959
Strikes and Riots, 1940s-1950s
Achieving full self-government
Communism as threat in Singapore
In and out of Malaysia
Reasons for Merger
Problems faced during merger
Separation

British Colonial Rule

Role of the Immigrant Communities

Singapore and Malaya had contact with other societies very early on, and its designation as the British’s Empire’s strategic free port only helped to improve Singapore’s networking with the world outside.

Profile of Immigrants
Mostly men who just wanted to earn money and go back home.
Too poor to bring in their women and governments like Manchuria were against female emigration until the 1850s. But a considerable number decided to stay and brought their families over or married locals Traders carrying goods

Why they came

Pull Factors
Push Factors
For the Chinese:
British had a free immigration policy to attract a Chinese workforce. No restrictions were forced on the migrants.

Good job opportunities in the Tin Industry, where the indigenous Malays did not want to work.

Offered job contracts under mining operators through an indenture system.

- Chinese Worker Rights were being protected by the British

- Singapore’s geography made it a safe place from floods and droughts and natural disasters unlike China. For the Chinese:
The Southern Chinese citizens strongly opposed the Manchu government and left because Manchu officials were inefficient and corrupted

- Disasters like floods that created stiff competition for resources. For the Indians:
Development of the Rubber Industry

Job opportunities

Singapore had much better living conditions than India.

Secured employment through the Indenture System which provided job contracts in the rubber plantation. Later replaced by Kangany System by which a supervisor brings in workers from his village.

End of Slavery in India resulted in the need for more labourers in other colonies

- Labour Code improved the lives of Indian labouers
For the Indians
Overpopulation in India placed strain on resources.

- Low standard of living in India

- Natural Disasters
For the Other Foreigners
Traders indulged in the luxury of a free port

Singapore was a stable country free from the political instability of other ports.

British pushed a lot of money into industrial development
For the Other Foreigners:
Unnecessarily high taxes for trade

Other countries were corrupt and unstable politically posing threat to traders.

Contributions of the Immigrants

The immigrants who became the early settlers of Singapore were initially very focused on making money with the opportunities the British created. Therefore they contributed very significantly to Singapore’s economic development. Certain other early settlers also contributed to the building of key infrastructure and other installments in Singapore.

Some of their contributions are:

Chinese
Indians
Worked as miners in the Tin Industry

Helped merchants as coolies with importing and re-exporting goods (Entrepôt Trade)

Served as the middlemen for foreign traders who did not speak the local dialects to help the sell merchandise

Also helped to set up basic education and other services like simple healthcare and religious support for their own communities

Built transport and...
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