Phenomenology- a discipline within philosophy that has affected many other disciplines. -It is the study of science of experience. A descriptive science, wanting to know what experience is. -trying to define what is true
-the national attitude needs to be bracketed off to allow the experience to speak for itself. -scienceline that always has the same results.
Edmond Husserl- book title is Ideas. Founder of phenomenology. •main thing about experience is that it is intentional. Consciousness is always intending. -led to many other sub developments
William James-, founder of the school of pragmatism. Wrote the varieties of religious experience. Wants to show how each religion works. originator of pragmatism. Wanted pragmatism to apply to nature as well. -does it work?
-he defines religion as what works for them
-religion is workable
-pragmatism: talks about the truth of what works (practical) if something is true than it works.
Rudolph Otto- picked up Husserl’s method and applied it to religious experience. •his religious experience definition is subjectively: the experience of awe and Objectively: the holy other, meaning power and understanding beyond the ordinary. Ottos book title: the idea of the holy
-religious objects- can be an event.
-religious ppl- he calls the atmosphere the Numinous – the radiance holy objects have about them.
Semiotics- just beginning since 20th century. Study of signs, wanted to talk about every type of sign that has ever existed. To understand reality, all thinking begins with the signs that precede them. Before u get to the meaning of the religion u have to understand the meaning of the sign itself. Feelings form before ideas.
C.S Pierce- originator of semiotics. Agreed with James about what works Talks but added something new: the world of signs. Ideas are products of signs. First come the signs then the ideas.
Charles Darwin- natural selection, evolution is unpredictable. Life as we know it. Trying to describe how we got to here.
Stuart Kuaffman- brings Darwin and C.S Pierce together. When evolution is at that point with new possibilities b/c the environment is different, it is unpredictable where it is going next. -adjacent possibles- are there because someone put them there or b/c they are random.
Luisen(y)o creation story- separation between emptiness above and emptiness below. Out of the sexual reunion of the two is the creation of the earth. The sky, kivish, is maleness, and atakvish is femaleness. Kivish(above) Atakvish(below)
-before he dies he says when I die burn my body and said if you come out and look up 3 days from now you will see me b/c I’m coming back. and so wiyot became the moon. -what are they doing up there- they don’t see the big dipper. They see a three fingered hand reaching down from the sky. The sky is turning
Wiyot- original creature. Watched the wanahut in the creek and noticed that the wanahut was flat with only two dimensions, unlike the other creatures. The wanahut sees the wiyot watching her so she puts a curse on the wiyot to die. Wanahut- mother of the world of frogs. (protofrog)
Miercea Eliade- most impressive scholar in world religions
Hierophany- sacred power flows on an axis.
Gabriel Marcel- difference between problems and mysteries. Religions generally speaking about mysteries
Frazier- describes religions as evolutionary phases. The tree periods: 1. world of magic
2. religion- way of changing nature replaced magic
3. science replaces religion
Problems and mysteries-
Mana- power talking about basic religions. In terms of invisible power (p15)
Fetish- Ritual tools. Teach doesn’t think it relates with animals but book does.
Taboo- (35) something to avoid b/c it offends the spirits.
Ex- Touch a dead body
Native American church
Trance induction- ritual, makes ppl in an extraordinary state of consciousness. Pre...
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