Unit 3 Lecture Study Guide
1. List the 4 primary tissue types and give the general characteristics and functions of each one.
a. Epithelium - 1) It protects us from the outside world – skin. 2) Absorbs – stomach and intestinal lining (gut). 3) Filters – the kidney. 4) Secretes – forms glands.
1) Closely attached to each other forming a protective barrier. 2) Always has one free (apical) surface open to outside the body or inside (cavity) an internal organ. 3) Always had one ﬁxed (basal) section attached to underlying connective tissue. 4) Has no blood vessels but can soak up nutrients from blood vessels in connective tissue underneath.
5) Can have lots of nerves in it (innervated).
6) Very good at regenerating (ﬁxing itself). i.e. sunburn, skinned knee.
b. Connective Tissue - 1) Wraps around and cushions and protects organs. 2) Stores nutrients . 3) Internal support for organs. 4) As tendon and ligaments protects joints and attached muscles to bone and each other. 5) Runs through organ capsules and in deep layers of skin giving strength.
c. Nervous Tissue - 1) Conducts impulses to and from body organs via neurons
d. Muscle Tissue - 1) Responsible for body movement. 2) Moves blood, food, waste through body’s organs. 3) Responsible for mechanical digestion
The 3 Types of Muscle Tissue
4) Smooth Muscle – organ walls and blood vessel walls, involuntary, spindle-shaped cells for pushing things through organs. 5) Skeletal Muscle – large body muscles, voluntary, striated muscle packed in bundles and attached to bones for movement. 6) Cardiac Muscle – heart wall, involuntary, striated muscle with intercalated discs connecting cells for synchronized contractions during heart beat.
2. How are epithelial tissues classified?
1) By shape
a) squamous - ﬂat and scale-like
b) cuboidal - as tall as they are wide
c) columnar - tall, column-shaped
2) By cell arrangement
a) simple epithelium - single layer of cells (usually for absorption and ﬁltration)
b) stratiﬁed epithelium - stacked up call layers (protection from abrasion (rubbing) - mouth, skin.)
3. How does the type of epithelial tissue relate to its function? Give at least 1 example of where you would find each type of epithelial tissue.
Refer to questions 1 and 2
4. Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine glands. Give an example of each.
Endocrine glands are for hormones so they have no ducts because the hormones are secreted directly into the blood stream. An example is thyroxin from the thyroid.
Exocrine glands have ducts for their specific locations. An example is salivary glands.
5. What is the difference between apocrine, merocrine and holocrine glands? Which is the most common?
Apocrine – Fragments of the gland go into the secretion, apex of cell pinches off, mammary glands.
Holocrine – Whole cell becomes part of secretion, secretion accumulates in cell, cell ruptures and dies, sebaceous glands (oil and skin)
Merocrine – no loss of cytoplasm, secretion leaves cell by exocytosis, sweat glands, pancreas, and salivary glands
I think holocrine is most common
6. Describe connective tissue’s intercellular material.
a) Dense Regular Connective Tissue – tendons and ligaments, regularly arranged bundles packed with ﬁbers running same way for strength in one direction.
b) Dense Irregular Connective Tissue – skin, organ capsules, irregularly arranged bundles packed with ﬁbers for strength in all directions.
7. What are the 8 main types of connective tissue? Briefly describe each.
1. Simple squamous: A single layer of squamous cells that are thin, flat cells that resemble fried eggs. They form the lining of cavities such as the mouth, blood vessels and lungs....
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