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Test 4 Review

Chapter 10 Review Questions
1. What is essential fat? What is subcutaneous fat? What is visceral fat? Essential- needed for proper functioning of the brain, nerve tissue, bone marrow, heart tissue, and cell membranes; Subcutaneous- helps insulate & protect muscles and bones from injury; Visceral- forms protective structure under abdominal muscles and over stomach & intestine 2. Weight loss occurs when energy intake is ________than energy expenditure. Weight gain occurs when energy intake is _____than energy expenditure. Weight maintenance occurs when energy intake _____ energy expenditure Higher; less; equal

3. How many calories are in 1 pound of fat? Let's assume that Frank needs to eat 2500 calories per day to maintain his weight. If Frank ate 2000 calories a day for 7 days, how many pounds of fat would he lose? 3,500 calories; 500 x 7 = 3,500

4. List 3 causes of rapid weight loss or weight gain.
Very low calorie diets, medications, and high sodium intakes 5. Define the basal metabolic rate. See your power point: List 3 factors that increase BMR. List 3 factors that lower BMR. The number of calories needed to sustain life processes at complete rest 6. List and describe the components of energy expenditure. Basal metabolism- minimal number of calories used for vital physiological activities after fasting and resting for 12 hours; physical activity; TEF- energy used to digest foods and beverages, and absorb and process the nutrients; NEAT- energy spent of involuntary skeletal muscle activity (fidgeting, shivering) 7. What is the BMI? How is it best used? A BMI of _____ is considered obese. Numerical value of relationship between body weight and risk of certain chronic health problems; lbs/in (squared) x 703; 30.0 – 39.9 8. List and describe 3 methods of assessing your body composition. What is a healthy range of % body fat for men? For women? Underwater weighing, skinfold thickness, DXA; 13-21%; 23-31% 9. Why should we measure a person's waist circumference? What is a healthy waist circumference for a man? For women? What are the health risks associated with being an apple shape? To determine central obesity; < 40in; < 35in; high blood pressure & cardiovascular disease 10. Do genetics play a role in the risk for obesity? What is leptin? Can fat cells increase in number? When we lose weight what happens to fat cells? Yes; hormone produced by fat cells that caused reduced food intake, reduced weight, and decreased body fat; yes; size shrink not number 11. Why are moderate weight loss plans recommended? List 3 healthy strategies for weight loss. What are the exercise recommendations for someone who wants to lose weight? Promotes a gradual weight loss equal to 1-2 lbs/week & protects lean body tissue while fat tissue is lost; stop dieting & make a commitment to change your lifestyle, keep records of your daily intake of calories, and focus on whole grains, fruits, and vegetables 12. What is the female athlete triad?

Low energy intake, abnormal menstrual cycles, and bone mineral irregularities Chapter 11 Review Questions
1. See you power point. List the physical activity guidelines for developing physical fitness.  Build cardio respiratory endurance, build muscular strength, and develop and maintain flexibility 2. See your power point. Calculate the THR for a student who is 19 years old. Use the range of 60% and 90% of the max HR. 220 – 19 = 201 x .6 = 120.6; 201 x .9 = 180.9

3. List 3 examples of strength training activities. Define hypertrophy. Define atrophy. Weightlifting, pull-ups, and pushups; muscles increase in size; muscles shrink in size 4. Calculate the protein recommendation for a strength-trained athlete who weighs 200 pounds. List 4 food sources of high quality protein that strength trained athletes could eat to meet their protein needs. 1.2 to 1.4 x 200 or 1.2 to 1.7 x 200; lean meat, poultry, fish, egg whites 5. Define heat exhaustion. Define heat stroke. List 3 guidelines to help prevent athletes from becoming dehydrated. Drink before and during activity, replenish after activity

6. Define muscle glycogen. What type of diet do athletes need to eat to maximize muscle glycogen stores? Why aren't high protein low carbohydrates recommended for endurance athletes? Stored carbohydrates in muscles; carbohydrates; low muscle glycogen rapid fatigue 7. List 3 guidelines for pre-exercise meals.

Eat high carb low fat foods, all meals should contain fluids, heavy meals should be eaten 3-4 hours before event, light meals & snacks 1-2 hours 8. Why are athletes who are women, vegetarians, or endurance athletes at risk for iron deficiency anemia? How does iron deficiency anemia affect physical performance? Why? Iron is necessary for the formation of healthy red blood cells, athletes can tire easily, and deficiency impairs O2 transport  

Chapter 13 Review Questions
1. Why should men be concerned about their nutritional intake prior to their partner becoming pregnant? Why do women need to be concerned about nutrition before conception? Can cause birth defects if teratogens are a part of the intake 2. Define teratogens and list 3 examples. What 4 fish should be avoided during pregnancy due to their mercury content? Substances that can cause birth defects; alcohol, illegal drugs, and smoking; tilefish, shark, king mackerel, and swordfish 3. See you power point. How much weight should a woman with a healthy BMI index gain during pregnancy. List 3 benefits of exercising during pregnancy. 25 – 35lbs; great mood booster, keeps blood pressure down, and helps compensate for an increased appetite 4. Define "low birth weight". List the health risks for a low birth weight baby. 5. How many extra calories per day are recommended during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters? How much extra protein is recommended? How many cups of  fluid/day are recommended during pregnancy Any baby born weighing less than 5.5lbs; increased risk of infections, learning disabilities, impaired physical development, and death in the first year 6. Why is DHA important during the 3rd trimester? List sources of omega 3 fatty acids. For neurological and eye development; flaxseeds, walnuts, and salmon 7. Explain why adequate folic acid intake is needed during early pregnancy. Explain why iron needs increase during pregnancy. List 3 sources of iron. For development of the neural tube, which becomes the brain and the spinal cord; fetus will take iron from mother causing iron-deficient anemia; chicken, turkey, and eggs 8. What is pica? What is gestational diabetes? What are the classic symptoms of preeclampsia?  What are recommendations concerning alcohol and caffeine intake during pregnancy? What is FAS? Craving a non-food item (clay & chalk); deficiencies in protein, vitamin C and E, calcium, and magnesium; No alcohol; 0-200mg a day for caffeine; Fetal Alcohol Syndrome- a cluster of birth defects born to a mother who consumed alcohol during pregnancy 9. Describe colostrum. List 3 reasons why breast milk is considered the highest nutrition quality for your baby. What is the recommendation given by the AAP concerning breastfeeding? First milk produced- rich in proteins, antibodies, vitamins, and minerals; easily digested, supplies antibodies and immune cells, and reduces risks of blood allergies; do it for the first 6 months 10. What are 3 benefits of breast-feeding for the mother?  How many extra calories per day are needed during the first 6 months of breastfeeding, the 2nd 6 months? How much extra fluid is recommended per day? Reduces urine bleeding after delivery, may provide maternal weight lose, and may enhance bonding with the infant; 300-400 calories; extra quart or 1 liter 11. What causes baby bottle syndrome?

Occurs when a baby’s teeth are in frequent contact with sugars from liquid carbohydrates 12. The foundation for a lifetime of strong bones is achieved during what ages (from ____ to _____) in the life cycle? The highest level of calcium in the bones is achieved during this time frame and is known as _______ bone mass. 0 – 30; peek

13. Define sarcopenia. What health concerns do seniors who have sarcopenia face? The age related loss of muscle mass strength and function; May lose the ability to move and maintain balance, increasing the risk of falling 14. What are a few suggestions for getting children to eat new foods? How many times might you need to introduce a new food before a child with try it? Serve smooth foods without lumps, small portions, small tables, and presentation; 10 to 15 times 15. What are a few suggestions to help overweight children get healthier? The Institute of medicine recommends that children need to very active for________? Provide healthy low fat snacks, parents model healthy eating and exercise, portion control; at least one hour per day 16. Iron deficiency anemia is one of the most common nutrient deficiencies in children and teens. Eating vitamin C rich foods with foods that contain iron enhances iron absorption. What are a few vitamin C rich foods we learned about in the chapter on vitamins? Broccoli, oranges, and strawberries

17. What foods are known to be a common cause of choking in children? Grapes, nuts, hard candies, popcorn, and chips
18. What are a few healthy snacks for teens?
Yogurt, milk and cereal, pudding, and string cheese
19. Why are seniors at risk for dehydration?
The thirst mechanism becomes impaired and many seniors go long periods of time without drinking

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