Sociology class notes

Topics: Sociology, Social stratification, Structural functionalism Pages: 16 (2872 words) Published: May 17, 2014
Chapter 1

What is sociology?

Seeks to explain, describe, and predict human behavior

Not concerned with individual human beings

Concerned with human beings in reaction to other human beings

Puts emphasis on group behavior (two or more people) (small group/large groups)

Looks at group social interaction, social behavior an influence of social structures on people

How old is sociology? 200 years

Why did sociology (as social science develop)?

Who was the founding father of sociology?

Main contributions of Sociology

Auguste compte: Founding father of sociology, coined the word sociology

How is Sociology different from other social sciences?

Emile Durkheim: influenced development of functionalism

4 types of suicide by Durkheim:
Egoistic: Mentally ill, lonely, social outcast, depression
Altruistic: Kamikaze pilots, suicide bombers, cult members, obligation to the group, Fatalistic: Inmates, elderly, terminally ill, hopelessness
Anomic: Anyone who cant deal with chaos, such as stock market crash or 1929-Insecurity

When society’s norms are questions, much social change,
Society is rapidly changing
Institutions are weakened, family, religion.
Gender norms are questioned; values and belief systems are questioned

Theory of structural functionalism

1 If a structure exists in society its because its functional, the social structure exists because it works

Social structures: anything external to people that has ways of affecting us, like religions, schools,

Any pattern of social organization external to people that has a way of influencing us.


3. This theory explains that society s a large social system with inter relation parts, all working together for a reason

4. If something in society is present its because it works for some part of it, it not it ceases to exist, if something continues to exist in society its because it works,

5. Glitches happen. This throws that part of the social system in a state of imbalance. When the situation is rectified, that part of the social system goes back to a state of equilibrium.

6. if you want to understand why something exists in society look at its relationship with some other parts of the social system. It must be contributing in some way to some part of it
Otherwise it would cease to exist

The conflict theory:
1: Karl Marx’s ideas led to the development of this theory 2. two social classes: bourgeoisie( ruling class) proletariat( working class) 3: There has always been a history of the exploitations of the ruling class on the working class( Its all about power and money) 4: Marx argues that the powerful will also use different social structures to maintain their position example: criminal justice system, (laws)

The ruling ideas of any age the ideas of its ruling class.
Macrosociology vs. Microsociology

Macro is concerned with large external social structures affecting people.

Macro- is conflict and functionalism( because, it influences large groups of people) Micro- symbolic and exchange ( deal with trying to help and analyze small groups, to get inside their spaces, get in their heads, try to understand why they act the way they do.

If a situation is studied, a researcher will look at external reasons for causes, economy, environment access to education, strength of the family unit in Canada.
Augutus comte: the founding father of sociology, coined the word sociology
Emile Durkheim: Influenced development of functionalism

Karl Marx: Led to development of conflict theory involving the bourgeoisie and the proletariat.

Max Weber: Influenced development of Symbolic Interaction Theory.

Exchange Theory:

In all relationships, there is a constant “give and take”

When people give more then they receive on a constant basis, they start feeling more dissatisfied with the...
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