-1Social psychology – the scientific study of
how a person’s thoughts, feelings, and
behavior are influenced by the real,
imagined, or implied presence of others.
• Social influence - the process through
which the real or implied presence of
others can directly or indirectly influence
the thoughts, feelings, and behavior of an
• Conformity - changing one’s own behavior
to match that of other people.
• Groupthink - kind of thinking that occurs
when people place more importance on
maintaining group cohesiveness than on
assessing the facts of the problem with
which the group is concerned.
• Consumer psychology – branch of
psychology that studies the habits of
consumers in the marketplace, including
• Compliance - changing one’s behavior as
a result of other people directing or asking
for the change.
Four Ways to Gain Compliance
• Foot-in-the-door technique – asking for a
small commitment and, after gaining
compliance, asking for a bigger
• Door-in-the-face technique – asking for a
large commitment and being refused, and
then asking for a smaller commitment.
– Norm of reciprocity - assumption that if
someone does something for a person, that
person should do something for the other in
• Lowball technique – getting a commitment
from a person and then raising the cost of
• That’s-not-all technique - a sales
technique in which the persuader makes
an offer and then adds something extra to
make the offer look better before the target
person can make a decision.
• Obedience - changing one’s behavior at
the command of an authority figure.
• Milgram study – "teacher" administered
what they thought were real shocks to a
In Stanley Milgram’s classic study on obedience, the participants were presented with a control panel like this one. Each participant (“teacher”) was instructed to give electric shocks to another person (the “learner,” who only pretended to be shocked). At what point do you think you would have refused to continue the experiment? Social Loafing and Social Facilitation
• Group polarization - is the tendency for
members involved in a group discussion to
take somewhat more extreme positions
and suggest riskier actions when
compared to individuals who have not
participated in a group discussion
• Social facilitation - the tendency for the
presence of other people to have a
positive impact on the performance of an
• Social loafing - the tendency for people to
put less effort into a simple task when
working with others on that task.
• Attitude - a tendency to respond positively
or negatively toward a certain person,
object, idea, or situation.
• The three components of an attitude are
the affective (emotional) component, the
behavioral component, and the cognitive
• Attitudes are often poor predictors of
behavior unless the attitude is very
specific or very strong.
Figure 12.3 Three Components of an Attitude
Attitudes consist of the way a person feels and thinks about something, as well as the way the person chooses to behave. If you like country music, you are also likely to think that country music is good music. You are also more likely to listen to this style of music, buy this type of music, and even go to a performance. Each of the three components influences the other two.
Formation of Attitudes
• Direct contact with the person, situation,
object, or idea.
• Direct instruction from parents or others.
• Interacting with other people who hold a
• Vicarious conditioning - watching the
actions and reactions of others to ideas,
people, objects, and situations.
• Persuasion - the process by which one
person tries to change the belief, opinion,
position, or course of action of another
person through argument, pleading, or...
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