Research Methods in Kinesiology- Course Notes

Topics: Research, Validity, Scientific method Pages: 35 (8307 words) Published: February 26, 2014

Chapter 1: The Scientific Process
1903, Simon Newcomb wrote The Outlook for the Flying machine mankind will never build useful airplane Dec 16, 1903 Orville and Wilbur Wright make first flight
Human knowledge and understanding is changed by new discoveries, inventions, insights etc. Research in Sport and Exercise Sciences
Slowikowski and Newell (write articles) discuss the lack of a common name among depts. In the field S&E historically took place in the PE dept. at most universities and colleges Divided into several overlapping sub disciplines including:

Adapted physical education
Exercise physiology
Growth and development
Sport nutrition
Sport sociology
Measurement and evaluation
Motor behavior
Sport History
Sport Psychology
Why Study Research Methods?
Enhance understanding of other courses such as exercise physiology, biomechanics, or motor behavior Know how to read and interpret journal articles
Various diff. techniques used in advertising
Parity Claims
Careful wording of an advertisement, gives impression that one product is superior to another Wording essentially means the two are the same
Ex. Advil: “Nothing is proven more effective or longer lasting” Wording means that other pain medications are as equally effective Testimonials
Statement providing evidence in support of the claim
Strength and fitness magazines and late night infomercials offer testimonials Only show people who have showed excelling results, don’t represent what will happen to the average person under similar conditions Statistical Information

The statistics that are given are usually difficult to evaluate and interpret and therefore are meaningless Must ask ourselves where these numbers come from, what comparisons are being made Gaining Knowledge

Main goal of research is gathering and interpreting info to answer questions Basic Research cycle: 1) Ask a question 2) Make initial observations 3)Conduct a systematic investigation 4) Analyze the new info 5) Interpret the findings 6) Integrate the findings w/ previous knowledge Theories

A set of related statements that explain a set of facts or a belief about how things relate to each other Only bad theories are those that cannot be shown to be incorrect Most researchers believe that theories are never proven

The Functions of Theories
Two general roles: 1) help organize info and facts about events or behaviors
2) Used to make predictions that provide the basis for new research
Evaluating Theories
How accurately the theory describes behavior or makes predictions Simplicity:
The number of qualifiers or special conditions that must be met before a theory can be used to make accurate predictions Occam’s razor: principle that implies explanations should be kept as simple as possible w/ the fewest number of assumptions Testability:

The extent to which empirical methods may be used to gather evidence about a theory Many forward-looking individuals develop ideas and theories beyond the capabilities of current technology to adequately assess them Theories in News

Theories found in classroom, papers, TV, magazine etc.
Theories found in magazine:
The ultra violet light theory for the mysterious disappearance of frogs Theory explaining is the thinning in the ozone layer
Two social theories for inappropriate rising intonation
Increasing amount of so called inappropriate rising intonation at the end of declarative sentences Theory that adolescents are sometimes unsure of themselves and express their need for approval by completing most sentences as if they were a question Adolescents speak this way /c their friends do (following what’s trending) Three theories for the origin of HIV

The new virus develops through a potent form of an older HIV A virus that affected only one species might begin to affect another species Very rare virus might seem new when it suddenly emerges in larger numbers of...
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