RELIGION AND PEACE: Islam
-The sacred texts of Islam, the Qur’an and the way of the Prophet Muhammad (sunna) as found in the hadith, are fundamental to Islam. -Qur'an is the fundamental text for all Muslims
-It contains the revelation of Allah, complete and unaltered as revealed to the Prophet Muhammad -Qur'an is organised into 114 Surahs or chapters
-Hadith refers to the collection of traditions of the words and deeds of Muhammad -The Qur'an sets out clear paths for Muslims to follow in their desire to submit to Allah -The Qur'an refers to Islam as 'the path of peace' → importance of reconciliation; Allah is disturbed by violence. -Sharah Law: 'path to the watering hole' -guidance. Refers to the 5 basic human rights: freedom of mind, speech and thought; freedom to own property; freedom to reproduce; right to life; right to lead a physically and emotionally healthy life
-The mission of the Prophet Muhammad is one of peace and mercy to humankind. (21:107) -The tradition of the Prophet Muhammad affirms "Allah grants to ifq (gentleness) what he does not grant to unf (violence)” (Hadith4/255) referring to the idea that 'reconciliation is the best' (4:128) and those who are gentle will be rewarded. -"As-Salamu-Alaykum" -Peace be with you.
-"Dar a' Salaam" -house of peace → Society
Principal teachings about peace in Islam
-True peace can only exist where there is justice
-The word Islam itself comes from the Arabic words for peace selm and Salam -prophets and The Prophet Muhammad- model peace and give guidance -Muslims can engage themselves only in a defensive, not in an offensive war, whatever the circumstances -According to Islam, peace is the rule and war is only an exception -In the situation of a defensive war if the likely outcome does not warrant the conflict Muslims should avoid the war -Jihad literally means to strive or to struggle
-Jihad is a central teaching of Islam but is not synonymous for war -Jihad can, and does also refer to the military struggle to achieve religious freedom for Muslims and the protection of Muslim values -Lesser outer jihad (al-jihad al-asghar); a military struggle, i.e. a holy war -Greater inner jihad (al-jihad al-akbar); the struggle of personal self-improvement against the self's base desires and obedience to Allah. -When the Qur'an refers to war or fighting it uses the word "qital" and not jihad. -In its proper usage Jihad refers mostly to the essential struggle in overcoming obstacles to submission to Allah -The use of force is always a last resort and war of aggression is never an option for Islam. -According to the Hadith, the daily prayer of the Prophet Muhammad was centered on peace "O Allah, you are the original source of peace; from you is all peace, and to you returns all peace, So, make us live with Peace; and let us enter paradise; The House of Peace. Blessed be you, our Lord, to whom belongs all Majesty and Honour!"
-Permitted use of war is to establish and assure justice, and to overcome oppression and tyranny. -Four situations can be seen where an Islamic state is justified in using force: 1) The first situation is to overcome oppression where there is the denial of religious freedom 2) The second situation is when individual Muslims and their property are under attack from another group in the community 3) The third situation is where an Islamic state is invaded by a foreign power 4) The fourth situation relates to law enforcement where there is a need to subdue rebellion against legitimate authority within an Islamic state
3 types of peace:
Sakinah → a state of inner calm and tranquillity bestowed upon Mohammad when he received revelations Tum a’ninah → comfort of heart given to those at the Battle of Badr Sharh As-Sadr → openness and understanding given to those who accept Islam
For Muslims, peace is not a single dimensional or individual concept: -Peace is firstly to be at rest with one's own desires and...
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