Topics: Family therapy, Cybernetics, Family Pages: 32 (7181 words) Published: October 10, 2013
Individual PsychologySystemic Family Therapy
John Locke - world of modernism (western culture belief system – Lockean tradition)American values Counter-cultural
Focus is on individualWholistic perspective:
Moves away from individual & individual problems viewed in isolation. Relationships & relationship issues between individuals.
From this perspective:
Linear cause/effect thinking
Any problem is solvable if we find the answer to the question. •Problems happens in a linear(unidirectional way)
oA causes B (A→B)
oA is responsible for B
oB happened because of A
oA did something to B, then C happened. (A→B→C)From this perspective: •Linear casualty is not meaningful
Focus on:
oReciprocity, recursion, shared responsibility.
A & B exists in a relationship in which each influence the other. •Both is equally the cause & effect in each other’s behaviour. •A B∞
Lockean tradition sees reality:
Reality is seen as separate from us.
It exists outside our minds.
Meaning comes from external experience. We are only the recipients – we recognise order; not create it. •Realities are black/white; right/wrongHow Family therapy sees reality: •Reality is not external to us

We m

The observer replaces the observed as the focus of attention. Subjectivity is seen as inevitable –
The one who is observing receives, acts on participates to create his/her own reality. Appropriate scientific methodology :
Methodology is empirical & quantitative
Knowledge is gained from experiments & observation.
Results must be measurable & objective
The subject is separate from the object of his/her observations.
The observer and the observed is interdependent.
Dialectical process with mutual influence
Both have influence
What determines human behaviour?
Focuses on the why
Internal events / external environmental sequences.
Mind & reality exist independent from each other.

(I as the subject/mind can view object/reality from a distance without imposing my values or beliefs on object/reality.

We thus believe:
Objective measurement & value-free science are possible. •The subjective dimension should be mistrusted, as
the subject is non-scientificWhat determines human behaviour? Focus is on the what happened.
We act on the world and have choices and create our own destiny. Mind and body is inseperable, subjectivity is inevitable and therefore free-value therapy is impossible. Focus is on:
The focus should be on root causes.
Attention is directed to history/previous events that caused problems.

How to treat it:
Behaviour should be reduced to the lowest point.
We must then focus on the
othe individual’s specific behaviours /
ointernal events in the human mindThe focus is on:
The focus is on what is happening rather than why .
Perspective is present-centered:
Examine of here-and-now interactions rather than historical causes. Theories & therapists that focus on individual:
psychoanalyst (Freud)
analytical psychology (Jung)
individual psychology (Adler)
Rogerian therapy (Rogers)
Behaviourism (Skinner)
Reality therapy (Glasser)
Rational emotive therapy (ellis)Schools of family therapy: •Behavioural
Each is based on the foundation of some of the following assumptions: •Asks, why?
Linear cause/effect
Subject/object dualism
Either/or dichotomies
Value-free science
Laws & law-like external reality
Historical focus
Absolutistic Foundation of assumptions:
Asks, What?
Reciprocal causality
Freedom of choice/proactive
Here-and-now focus

When entering a cybernetic approach, we do not reject the individual approach....
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