Management Information Systems: Technology Management
Management as defined by Mary Follett is “the art of getting things done through people” A manger is defined as a person who achieves the organization’s goals by motivating others to perform – not by performing himself. Whether management is an art or a science is a very subjective question. But it can be said without doubt that modern management in the environment of technology is becoming more of a science than an art. We define management for the purpose of Management information Systems as the process of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating and controlling the efforts of the members of the organization to achieve common stated goals of the organization.
In the process of management, a manager uses human skills, material resources and scientific methods to perform all the activities leading to the achievement of goals. The management process involves a continuous resolution of conflicts of one kind or the other which affects the achievement of goals. In the management of any activity, a manager comes across human conflict, conflict of goals, between alternative resources, conflict of time, conflict of approach or method and the conflict of choice.
The manager uses a variety of tools, techniques and skills while executing the management process of planning, organizing, staffing, coordinating and controlling. An effective way of handling this process is to treat the organization as a system. The result – oriented management approaches the problem of management through the system view of the organization.
The key concepts of the system theory used in the management are as follows:
1. A system is a comprehensive assembly of parts becoming an organization to achieve the stated goals.
2. A system is called OPEN if it has interaction with the environment and CLOSED if it not have an interaction with the environment.
3. A system is defined, described and understood by the boundaries within which it performs.
4. The system are subject to entropy, i..e., the tendency to “ run down”. Closed systems suffer from entropy as they are cut off from the environment, while open systems interact with the environment and draw upon the support of resources to maintain a given condition.
5. Systems try to remain in an equilibrium or a steady state by taking recourse to corrective action. This is possible when the system has its own feedback, i.e., an informational input about the state of the system.
The advantage of viewing the management as a system is that it enables us to see the critical variables, constraints and their interaction with one another. It force the manager to look at the situation in such a way that due regard is given to the consequences arising out of interaction with the related element or subjects. The process of management explained earlier consists of steps which are relationally linked and locked with each other. In the context of the MIS, the systems approach to management is the most efficient one. The understanding of the basic principle of management theory is very much essential. The application of management principles in an environment, recognizing the specific situation, is the accepted practice of management. Deviating from the principle to honour the situation and at the same time not diluting the management principle is the managerial skill. The manager must have a knowledge of management theory and principle as the skill to use them in a particular environment.
The Role of Managers in Organizations
Managers help keep chaos to a minimum. We've all worked for the person who proves this theory wrong, but when all is said and done, minimizing chaos is the manager's number one job. Henri Fayol's classical model of management says there are five distinct functions of every manager: Planning
While Fayol's theory still merits consideration, a...
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