Preseason cooper run
Post Training Cooper Run
Resting Heart Rate
Breathing Rate rest
Breathing Rate after
PRE @ end
Sit and Reach
In terms of the muscular system the long term effects of exercise are – Hypertrophy – the muscle increases in size and bulk. Hypertrophy is a result of an increase in the volume of contractile proteins within the muscle cell so they can contract with greater force. The number of muscle fibres stays the same. In general males have a greater potential for increases in muscle bulk due to higher levels of testosterone.
Increases in tendon strength - tendons are tough bands of fibrous connective tissue designed to withstand tension forces along their length. Like muscles, tendons adapt to the mechanical loading of regular exercise. A general adaptation is increased strength but different types of training will exert differing effects on muscle – tendon complexes. Ligaments and tendons will increase in flexibility and strength with exercise. Articular cartilage also becomes thicker.
Muscle stores & Mitochondria - Muscles increase their oxidative capacity (their ability to use oxygen to produce energy) with regular training. This is achieved by an increase in the number of mitochondria (an organelle where aerobic energy is produced) within the muscle cells which will increase the supply of ATP and an increase in the quantity of enzymes involved in the production of ATP. The ability of the muscle to store myoglobin is increased (myoglobin is like haemoglobin and carries oxygen).
Lactic acid anaerobic training stimulates the muscles to become better able to tolerate lactic acid and clear it away more efficiently. With endurance training the capillary network extends allowing greater volumes of blood to supply the muscles with oxygen and nutrients. The muscles are able to use more as a fuel source and become more efficient at using oxygen. With regard to the skeletal system long term exercise will have a long term influence on the following parts – Bones - they are not static, they can become stronger and denser as a result of the demands placed on them through exercise. This can increase the bone mineral content. The type of exercise to build bone is strength training and load bearing exercise that work against gravity. E.g. tennis basketball walking and running. Bones are strengthened as a result of the stress that exercise gives to them which leads to greater quantities of calcium and collagen being deposited within them. This can help reduce the risk of osteoporosis which is degenerative condition. The supporting connective tissue around the joints is also strengthened.
ligaments – ligament increase their ability to cope with loads through the increase in collagen fibres which are produced by fibroblasts (cells within the connective tissue of the ligament)
hyaline cartilage - this is the cartilage that cover the ends of bones, also called articular cartilage, which protects them. Regular exercise can increase its thickness.
Synovial fluid – movement of joint stimulates the secretion of synovial fluid. With regular exercise this becomes les viscous (more fluid) and the range of movement at the joint increases as connective tissue around the joint improves its flexibility. In terms of the energy systems long term exercise will –
Aerobic & anaerobic enzymes – increases in size and number of mitochondria are accompanied by increases in the enzymes that work inside to increase the production of aerobic energy. These changes explain increased performances in aerobic exercise. The same can be said of enzymes that help produce energy within the lactic acid system when glucose is being broken down.
Fat - fat is a main source of energy during low...
Please join StudyMode to read the full document