1. To what does the question of “Human Nature” refer in philosophy? What a human being is and will profoundly affect how you see yourself and how you see others and how you live. Psychologists such as Freud claimed humans are cruel, aggressive, and selfish.
2. According to Thomas Hobbes, what is the primary motivation of human beings? Human motivation is very self-centered
Seeking satisfaction of their own mechanical desires.
3. Moritz Schlick argues for the view that humans are so constituted such that they are able only to act out of self-interest. This view of human motivation is referred to as what? Physchological egoism- staes that human beinbs are made so that they can act only out of self interest
4. Why are our views about human nature important, according to Velasquez? In other words, what is the influence that our views of human nature have on our lives? because it shapes the every day world around us from relations ships with other people
5. Someone who believes that humans are basically unselfish would be more like what? That person would instinctively relate to other people with trust and openness. Pg. 49
6. To what does the notion of a “self” refer, within the philosophical world? The self can think, reason and perceive. You exist in a physical body and that is conscious and rational.
7. What does it mean to say that “the self is an independent individual”? The belief in life after death assumes that the self is conscious, has purpose and distinct from its material body
8. The traditional Western view of human nature, according to Velasquez, has five properties. They are what? all humans have a rational spiritual self that is distinct from its body has a purpose
endures over time
exists as a separate individual
9. Two of the most influential versions of the Traditional Western view of the self are what? * Rationalistic
* Judeo Christian religious
10. For Plato, the “three defining parts of human nature” are what? Reason – because of reason we know how we ought to live it should rule appetites and aggressions Appetite
11. Which of the three elements of human nature does Plato belief ought to rule over the others? He believes that reason is the humans highest power.
12. Which of the philosophers from the chapter believed that “the truth about human nature requires knowledge of another world of reality”?
13. What are the Forms, for Plato?
His forms are eternal and perfect ideals that exist in an unchanging, perfect heaven. Pg. 54 14. Which philosopher form the chapter believed that “the truth about human nature requires only knowledge of our world”? Aristotle ?
15. What is the significant implication of the Traditional Rationalistic view of Human Nature, according to Velasquez? Implies the human primarily as a thinker capable of reasoning.
16. What are the two distinguishing characteristics of the Judeo-Christian view of the human being? Humans are made in the image of GOD
They are divine beings because they contain something of the ability to love and know that characterizes the creator
17. How is the Judeo-Christian view of human nature different from the Greek rationalist view, when it comes to the purpose of living? (p. 57)
Judeo – we live to love God and to serve God
Greek – only those who can exercise their reason can realize the purpose of living *
18. What explanation does Velasquez give for the appeal of the rationalistic and Judeo-Christian views of human nature? (p. 59) The conflict between what our reason wants and what our desires push us toward . Reason will set us off from all other creatures making us like God and capable of choosing between good and evil, between a course that will bring us closer to or take us farther from our creator.
19. What are some familiar ideas about ourselves that are affirmed by the Traditional Rationalistic versions of Human Nature, according to the textbook?...
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