Lecture 1 introduction to information systems (chapter 1) 1.1 Introduction to Information Systems
IT relates to a computer-based tool that people use to work with information and to support the information and information processing needs of an organization. An IS collects, processes, stores, analyzes, and disseminates information for a specific purpose An academic/professional discipline concerned with the strategic, managerial and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing, storing, distributing and use of information, and it’s associated technologies, in society and organizations (from Wikipedia). Also known as Management Information Systems (MIS), Computer Information Systems (CIS), Information Technology (IT), or Information and Communication Technology (ICT) The business of moving data -> information -> knowledge
Why should I study Information Systems (IS)?
Information technologies are so heavily embedded in our lives that our daily routines would be almost unrecognizable to a student 20 years ago Whether it is creating your own blogs, registering for classes, paying bills, emailing your family, searching powerpoints and YouTube videos etc. Even though our generation is so comfortable using technology, and it is part of our everyday life, it is important to become an informed user: a person knowledgeable about IS and IT. First, you can benefit from this knowledge as it allows you to understand what is “behind” all of your IT applications Second, if you are informed you are able to enhance the quality of of your organization’s IT with your own input Third, as a new graduate, your organization will recommend you to perhaps select the IT applications your organization will use Fourth, being an informed user will keep you abreast with both new technologies and rapid development in current technologies Fifth, you will understand how using IT can improve your organization’s performance and teamwork as well as your own productivity IS has become increasingly important to companies and can be used strategically when up against competition There are several complexities that IS/IT faces in modern companies, and several factors contribute to these complexities First, information systems have enormous strategic value to organizations – firms rely heavily on them so much that when these systems are not working, the firm cannot function. This is called being “hostage to IS” Second, information systems are very expensive to acquire, operate and maintain. Third, the level of difficulty in managing information systems is the evolution of the management information systems (MIS) function within an organization
The technologies that count in IS
Anything that processes information: computers, servers, calculators, things with processor chips. Anything that stores information: databases, memory devices, RFID chips, bar codes. Anything that transmits information: telephone and television networks, the internet, mobile devices. Anything that provides logic and management to accessing the information: software, DBMS`s, the Web, protocols and standards.
1.3 How Does IT Impact Organizations?
IT reduces the Number of Middle Managers
IT helps managers become more productive and increases the amount of employees who are able to report to a single manager. It is reasonable to assume that in the coming years organizations will have fewer managerial levels and fewer staff and line managers – if this trend continues, promotions will become more competitive IT changes the Manager’s Job
IT changes the manner in which managers make decisions, by providing them with near real-time information, meaning that they in turn have less time to make a decision, increasing the stress of their job. But with this increase in stress, there is also more information ready at the hands of the manager that they are able to find through research that is ready in real-time. Employees can work from anywhere, anytime, so that a...
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