Intro to Archaeology Study Notes Ch 1 2 4 5

Topics: Human, Human evolution, Neanderthal Pages: 19 (5761 words) Published: October 11, 2013

Some terms
Geographical informations system (GIS): Included digital elevation, streets, land use and cover, topographic map, hydrology, aerial photographs. Software app that brings spatial data together for consolidation. •Horizontal excavation: an excavation for which the goal is to excavate a broad area in order to expose the remains of a single point in time. •Vertical excavation: an excavation for which the goal is to excavate a significant depth of deposits to expose the record of a sequence of occupation. •Law of superposition: in any undisturbed depositional sequence, each layer of sediments is younger than the one beneath it. •Strata: discrete layers in a stratigraphic sequence.

Anthropogenic deposits: deposits that result from human activity. Ex. Building fires on ephemeral hunter-gatherer campsites to erecting places of great cities •Depositional unit: the material deposited at a site at a particular point in time •Provenience: the precise context in which an object is recovered in an excavation •Datum point: the linchpin for the control of excavation. Serves as a reference point for all depth measurements on the site •Wet screening: process of spraying water onto a sieve to break up sediments and move them through screen: all artifacts recovered •Flotation: process used to recover botanical material (wood, seeds) in water. Charred seeds and wood float and can be dried, skimmed off for analysis •Artifacts: objects that show traces of human manufacture •Ecofacts: stuff recovered from an archaeological context either the remains of a biological organism or results of geological processes •Postdepositional processes: events that take place after a site has been occupied •Taphonomy: the study of the processes that affect organic remains after death •Quantification: methods used by archaeologists to represent the large quantities of material recovered in excavation and surveys •Typology: a list used to draw up an inventory of types of artifacts found by archaeologists in a particular archaeological context. •Ethnoarchaeology: research carried out by archaeologists living with and observing communities •Attribute: a particular characteristic of an artefact

Absolute chronology: a chronology stated in terms of calendar years •Relative chronology: a chronology that places assemblages in a temporal sequence not directly linked to calendar dates •Seriation: the method of comparing the relative frequency of artefact types between contexts •Intrasite: having to do with contexts within a single site – for example, an analysis of comparing the sizes and contents of different houses to try to determine social structure of society •Intersite: comparisons between two or more sites – for example, comparing the number of houses between sites in a region •Synchronic studies: studies that make comparisons within a single period •Diachronic studies: studies that make comparisons between different periods and look at processes of change through time •Archaeological theory: ideas that archaeologists have developed about the past and about the ways we come to know the past •Thunderstones: objects such as groundstone axes that people in medieval Europe believed formed when lightning struck earth •Three-age system: a system developed by Danish antiquarian Christian, Jurgensen Thomsen that catalogues artifacts into relics of three periods: the stone age, the bronze age, and the iron age, based on the material of manufacture. •Neolithic: the period in which hthere are polished stone tools. AKA the new stone age. •Paleolithic: the period in which humans lived with now-extinct animals. AKA the old stone age. •New archaeology (processual archaeology): an approach to archaeology based firmly on scientific method and supported by a concerted effort aimed at the development of theory •Induction: drawing general inferences on the basis of available empirical data •Deduction: drawing particular inferences...
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