Industrialisation :The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one based on the manufacturing of goods and services. Individual manual labour is often replaced by mechanized mass production and craftsmen are replaced by assembly lines. . It is a part of a wider modernisation process, where social change and economic development are closely related with technological innovation, particularly with the development of large-scale production.
The world has moved from an agrarian society to industrialized society and further to post-industrialized society. In the 21st century we are rather in the post industrialized state or second wave of advanced industrialization.
Man and Machine Interaction
In the post industrialized society man cannot imagine his life without machines. There is no area of modern man’s life that is not touched by machines. In an industry, quality of interaction between man and machine affects productivity. This is because in today’s industry machine and workers share the same workplace and to some extent work together. At times the worker needs to just give commands and control the functioning of machines, at other times a worker might just play the role of a catalyst in starting the operation of the machine and in a completely automated factory a worker hardly has a role to play.
In the earlier years man made machines to increase his capacity. But in today’s world of growing automation, machine is mimicking specific body parts of man for example – a crane works like his fingers, a shovel like a full arm, computer memory can retain unlimited facts and information. There are robots which can do multiple taske like cleaning, washing etc.
Problems of Man-machine Interaction:
Machines have undoubtedly invaded our daily and professional life. That is a fact. Consequently, This has led to questions and fears for people. It is usual to hear on questions about: where are we going to with machines? Are machines going to totally replace us? Are they in contradiction with our way of life ?
Industries like oil, chemicals and atomic energy where raw materials used are hazardous for human beings have become completely automated. Automation is the use of controlled systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes. The new era has a number of industries where a series machines do the entire operation of a factory from the start to the finished product. This is called an Assembly line where from the making of the product to the packaging, to supplying is done by machines without human intervention.
This automation leads to unemployment and boredom. The use of computers as teller machines has reduced the number of bank tellers from 480000 in 1983 to 301000 in 1993 in USA. A study by the Call Centre College and Lucent Technologies revealed that 28% of staff leave call centre jobs because of boredom as repetitive work is done. One is unable to use his intellect and creativity and feels rusted out. Although automation has led to reduced number of workers needed yer man is required to coordinate, integrate, judge, decide, create and innovate for the welfare of mankind. Thus human beings are still the masters of production. Good morale of workers lead to higher production.
The problem of man-machine interaction arises due to:
• Inadequate training by operator
• Poor levels of attitude and morale of workers affect man and machine interactions • Poor upkeep of machines
• Poor industrial relations
• Poor supervisory control
• Poor working conditions
• Improper workload
• Absence of incentives for higher productivity
• Physical and mental fitness of the workers
|NEGATIVE EFFECTS of Industrialisation | |...
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