Industrial Project

Topics: Tile, Ceramics, Ceramic Pages: 20 (5032 words) Published: June 23, 2013



Submitted to BKMIBA… Introduction

Background of the industry

Ceramics also known as fire clay is an inorganic, non-metallic solid article, which is produced by the art or technique of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramics is a diverse industry and contains several categories of products, including sanitary ware, refractories, cement, advanced ceramics and ceramic tiles.

Ceramic products like crockery, sanitary ware, tiles etc play a very important role in our daily life. This is because, apart from their decorative look, ceramic products are primarily hygiene products. This is also one of the chief reasons for their wide usage in bathrooms and kitchens in modern households to medical centres, laboratories, milk booths, schools, public conveniences etc. The ceramic industry has a long history, with the first instance of functional pottery vessels being used for storing water and food, being thought to be around since 9,000 or 10,000 BC. Clay bricks were also made around the same time. The ceramic industry has been modernising continuously, by newer innovations in product design, quality etc.

History of Ceramic Tiles
It is believed that the first clay tiles were produced seven to eight thousand years ago in the area now known as the Holy Land. Many sources independently verify that the actual known history of Tiles (and the known usage of wall and floor tile coverings) can be traced back as far as the fourth millennium BC (4000 BC) to Egypt. 

In those days, in Egypt, tiles were used to decorate various houses. Clay bricks were dried beneath the sun or baked, and the first glazes were blue in colour and were made from copper, very exquisite! 

During that period ceramics were also known to be found in Mesopotamia. These ceramics bore decorations, which were white and blue striped and later possessed more varied patterns and colours. Later on, in China too, the Great Center of Ceramic Art, a fine, white stoneware with the earliest Chinese glaze was produced during the Shang-Yin dynasty (1523-1028 BC). 

The usage and the art of making and decorating ceramic tiles had spread and by 900 A.D., decorative tiles had become widely used in Persia, Syria, Turkey and across North Africa. As transport and communication developed, tile usage and its penetration in other territories increased. Wars and territory take-overs caused this art to spread even faster. 

The Romans introduced tile making in Western Europe as they occupied territories. The Low Countries of Northern Europe somehow acquired the technology from Persia, while the Moors brought African tiles with them when they invaded Iberia (Spain). It was aboard the ships of Spanish conquistadors that decorative clay tiles found their way to the New World, where they were used primarily to decorate the Churches of newly built missions. 

By the end of the 12th century, use and manufacture of Ceramic Tiles had spread across Italy and Spain and into the rest of Europe. Till that time they were mainly used to decorate the floors of Cathedrals and Churches. The skill had eventually vanished from Europe in the 16th century following the reformation. But the decorative wall tile art had survived in Turkey and the Middle East and the Delft tiles art survived in Holland. 

A form of tile making had also evolved among the natives of North and South America at some point. The first decorative tiles to appear in Colonial North America were imported from Northern Europe, mainly England the Brits having hijacked the technology from the Dutch. The tiles were too expensive for utilitarian...
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