Important Articles of the Indian Constitution:
Indian constitution is the largest constitution in the world it contains originally 395 Articles, 22 parts, and 8 schedule. And presently it has 448 articles, 22 parts, and 12 schedules. Ø Part 1- Art. 1 to art. 4:
• Art.1- Name and territory of the union.
• Art.2 - Admission and Establishment of the new state.
• Art.3- Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states. Ø Part 2- Art. 5 to art. 11:
• Art.5 - Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution. • Art.6- Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan. • Art.10- continuance of rights of citizenship.
• Art.11- Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law. Ø Part 3- Art.12 to art.35
• Art.12- Definition of the state
• Art.13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights. Originally, constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there is only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44thamendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution. Some important Fundamental Rights are as:
• Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
• Art.14- Equality before the law.
• Art.15- Prohibition of discrimination on the grounds of religion, race, caste, sex. Or place of birth. • Art.16- Equality of opportunity in matters of public employment. • Art.17- Abolition of the untouchability.
• Art.18- Abolition of titles
• Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
• Art.19 guarantees to all the citizens the six rights
• (a) Right to freedom of speech and expression.
• (b) Right to assemble peacefully and without arms.
• (c) Right to form associations or unions.
• (d) Right to move freely throughout the territory of India.
• (e) Right to reside and settle in any part of the territory of India. • (f) Right to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade, and business. • Art.20- Protection in respect of conviction for offences. • Art.21-Protection of life and personal liberty.
• Art .22- Protection against arrest and detention in certain cases. • Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
• Art. 23- Prohibition of traffic in human beings and forced labour. • Art.24- Prohibition of employment of children in factories and mines. Under age of 14. Ø Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
• Art.25- Freedom of conscience and free profession , practice and propagation of religion. • Art.26- Freedom to manage religious affairs.
• Art.27- Freedom as to pay taxes for promotion of any particular religion. • Art.28- Freedom from attending religious instruction.
Ø Cultural and Educational Rights:Art.29 & art. 30
• Art. 29- Protection of interest of minorities.
• Art.30- Right of minorities to establish and administer educational institutions. Ø Art.32- Remedies for enforcement of Fundamental Rights.
Ø Part.4 Directive Principal of states Policy: Art 36 to art. 51
• Art.36- Definition
• Art.37- Application of DPSP
• Art.39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
• Art.40- Organisation of village panchayat
• Art.41- Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases • Art.43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
• Art.43A- Participation of workers in management of industries. • Art.44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
• Art.45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children. • Art.46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST,and OBC. • Art.47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public heath. • Art.48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry. • Art.49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance. • Art.50- Separation of judiciary from executive.
• Art.51- Promotion of international peace and security.
• Fundamental Duties: Part IV-A- Art 51A
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