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Human Geography

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Student Study Guide
to accompany

Human Geography
Eighth Edition
Jerome D. Fellmann
University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Arthur Getis
San Diego State University

Judith Getis
With Contributions by Jon C. Malinowski

Updated by
Jon C. Malinowski
United States Military Academy, West Point NY

i

Student Study Guide to accompany
HUMAN GEOGRAPHY, EIGHTH EDITION
FELLMANN/GETIS/GETIS
Published by McGraw-Hill Higher Education, an imprint of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1221 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10020. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2005, 2003, 2001, 1999, 1997. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written consent of The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., including, but not limited to, network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for distance learning.

www.mhhe.com

ii

Preface
1

Introduction: Some Background Basics

2

Roots and Meaning of Culture

3

Spatial Interaction and Spatial Behavior

4

Population: World Patterns, Regional Trends

5

Language and Religion: Mosaics of Culture

6

Ethnic Geography: Threads of Diversity

7

Folk and Popular Culture: Diversity and Uniformity

8

Livelihood and Economy: Primary Activities

9

Livelihood and Economy: From Blue Collar to Gold Collar

10

Patterns of Development and Change

11

Urban Systems and Urban Structures

12

The Political Ordering of Space

13

Human Impacts on Natural Systems: Geographic Outlooks on Global Concerns

Answer Section
Matching Questions
Fill In the Blanks
Multiple Choice Questions

iii

CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION: SOME BACKGROUND BASICS
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1.

Define and explain "geography".

2.

Explain the evolution of the discipline of geography from ancient times to the present.

3.

Explain the differences among human, regional, and physical geography.

4.

List the types of employers that hire geographers.

5.

Define the word "spatial" and use it as a geographer would.

6.

Contrast and provide examples of absolute and relative location, site and situation, absolute and relative direction, and absolute and relative distance.

7.

Explain scale as it is conceived by geographers and discuss how it applies to maps.

8.

Compare the natural and cultural landscape and describe how the attributes of places change over time.

9.

Discuss the basic ideas of spatial interaction.

10.

Summarize the concepts of density, dispersion, and pattern.

11.

Define the term "region" and demonstrate knowledge of functional, formal, and perceptual regions.

12.

Identify different ways that maps show data.

13.

Describe a GIS.

14.

Summarize the importance of mental maps.

1

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____

Absolute Direction

a. the cardinal points of north, south, east and west

____

Absolute Distance

b. the transformation of linear measurements into
meaningful units

____

Absolute Location

c. relationship between the size of an area on a map
and the surface of the earth

____

Relative Distance

d. the physical and cultural characteristics and
attributes of a place itself

____

Relative Direction

e. the identification of a place by a precise and
accepted system of coordinates

____

Relative Location

f. the spatial separation between two points on the
earth’s surface

____

Scale

g. the position of a place in relation to that of other
places or activities

____

Site

h. the relative location with particular reference to
items of significance to the place in question

____

Situation

i. “out west,” “back east,” “down south”

2. Identify each of the following as being either a formal, functional, or perceptual region. a. Central Business District

__________________

b. Mountain Range

__________________

c. the Sunbelt

__________________

d. Tropical Rain Forest

__________________

e. Your University’s Campus

__________________

f. Regional Office of a Company

__________________

g. Salesperson’s Territory

__________________

h. Chinatown

__________________

i. the “Nation’s Capital”

__________________

2

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

Which of the following statements concerning spatial systems is not correct? a. Maps cannot be used to measure and analyze systems, only models can. b. The analysis of the role of each component helps reveal the operation of the entire system. c. They function as units because their component parts are interdependent. d. Spatial systems may be the basis for regional identification.

2.

The essential perspective used by geographers in forming their concepts is: a. absolute
b. human
c. relative
d. spatial

3.

Arithmetic density:
a. cannot be used to compare regions.
b. is an absolute relationship such as population per square kilometer. c. is more meaningful than physiological density.
d. refers to the number of persons per unit of arable land.

4.

Site refers to the:
a. external features of a place.
b. precise location of the center of a city.
c. proximity to natural resources or transportation routes.
d. internal locational attributes of a place.

5.

Regional boundaries are marked by:
a. arbitrary decisions based upon the scale of the map.
b. dramatic changes in the region’s unifying characteristic. c. spatial reality.
d. the boundaries of a city or incorporated political unit.

6.

The statement that “the journey to work is 15 minutes by bus” is an example of: a. absolute direction.
b. absolute distance.
c. relative direction.
d. relative distance.

7.

Which of the following is not considered a geographic pattern? a. centralized
b. distributive
c. linear
d. random

8.

Perceptual regions:
a. are more vigorously structured than formal or functional regions. b. are not considered of any importance to geographers.
c. define areas only as far as the eye can see.
d. reflect feelings and images rather than objective data.

3

9.

In describing the patterns and processes of spatial interaction, geographers are most concerned with:
a. accessibility and connectivity.
b. density and dispersion.
c. diffusion and pattern.
d. pedestrian cities.

10. By the end of the 18th century, regional geographic investigation was strengthened by: a. Roger’s book.
b. the development of national censuses.
c. the processes of the physical landscape.
d. the rapid development of geology, botany, zoology, and other natural sciences. 11. The map type best used to record not only the presence of a phenomenon but to suggest its spatial pattern, distribution, or dispersion is: a. dot.

b. choropleth.
c. isoline.
d. statis tical.
12. Which of the following statements concerning the globe grid is not correct? a. Lines of latitude are always parallel to the equator.
b. Meridians and parallels intersect at right angles.
c. The equator is one-half the length of a meridian.
d. The scale on the surface of the globe is everywhere the same in every direction. 13. Which of the following is not one of the dominating interests in geography? a. areal variation of physical and human phenomena on the surface of the earth and their interrelationships

b. the development of overlapping perceptual regions
c. regional analysis
d. spatial systems linking areas of physical phenomena and human activities together 14. Using any map projection, there will always be some distortion because: a. a map has to depict the curved surface of the three-dimensional earth on a two dimensional sheet of paper. b. equivalent projections must be distinguished from conformal ones. c. some spatial phenomena are not tangible or visible.

d. the map scale is changed.
15. The visible imprint of human activity is known as:
a. spatial interaction.
b. the attributes of the setting.
c. the cultural landscape.
d. the natural landscape.
16. Idrisi’s prime objective was to:
a. collect all known geographical information and assemble it on a truly accurate representation of the world.
b. divide the inhabited earth into seven climatic regions.
c. spread the works of Ptolemy throughout the Greek and Muslim cultures of Europe, the Near East, and North Africa.
d. write Roger’s book.

4

17. Which of the following statements is correct?
a. The larger the scale of the map, the larger the area it covers. b. The larger the scale of the map, the more generalized are the data it portrays. c. The smaller the scale of the map, the larger the area it covers. d. The smaller the scale of the map, the more accurately can its content be displayed. 18. The early Greeks:

a. hired Muslims to describe and analyze their known world.
b. lost a great deal of their geographic knowledge during the Middle Ages. c. observed how humans lived in various areas against the backdrop of the earth’s physical features. d. were not interested in geography.

19. Which of the following is not a subfield of human geography? a. atmosphere
b. behavioral
c. economic
d. political
20. Which of the following statements concerning longitude is not correct? a. Longitude is depicted by north-south lines called meridians. b. Longitude is the angular distance east or west of the prime meridian. c. Meridians are parallel to the equator.

d. Meridians converge at the poles.
21. Modern geography traces its origins to the:
a. 17th century.
b. 18th century.
c. 19th century.
d. 20th century.
22. The characteristics of places today are the result of:
a. current inhabitants.
b. constantly changing past and present conditions.
c. Technology.
d. level of education.
23. The “turfs” of the urban clubs or gangs is an example of which type of region? a. formal
b. functional
c. nodal
d. perceptual
24. The distance between the North and South Poles is:
a.
b.
c.
d.

0 degrees.
90 degrees.
180 degrees.
360 degrees.

25. Which of the following is not true with respect to “places”? a. They cannot interact with other places.
b. They have location.
c. They may be large or small.
d. They have both physical and cultural characteristics.

5

CHAPTER 2 – ROOTS AND MEANING OF CULTURE
Objectives

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Define culture, culture trait , culture complex, culture region, and culture realm and give examples of each. Identify the three subsystems of a culture and classify culture traits as being technological, sociological, or ideological.

Compare and contrast environmental determinism and possibilism. Explain what is meant by the "cultural landscape".
Describe the significant changes in human culture that occurred during the Paleolithic, Mesolithic, and Neolithic periods of history.
Identify major world culture hearths and the chief centers of plant and animal domestications. Differentiate between expansion and relocation diffusion and provide examples of each. Outline factors that can promote, slow, or completely halt the diffusion of cultural traits. Explain what is meant by "acculturation".

6

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms concerning culture and its components with their definitions.

____ Culture

a. cultural traits that are functionally interrelated

____ Culture Traits

b. the unresponsiveness to changing circumstances and innovation

____ Culture Complex

c. the interlocking nature of the sociological, technological, and ideological subsystems

____ Culture Region

d. areas of innovation from which key culture elements diffused to exert and influence on surrounding regions

____ Culture Realm

e. the earth’s surface as modified by human action to produce a tangible, physical record of a given culture

____ Culture Hearth

f. an area that is distinct from surrounding or adjacent areas for a specific characteristic

____ Cultural Integration

g. the specialized behavioral patterns, understandings, and adaptations that summarize the way of life of a group of people

____ Cultural Lag

h. the set of cultural regions, showing related cultural com plexes and landscapes

____ Cultural Landscape

i. units of learned behavior

2.

Match the following terms associated with cultural diffusion with their correct definitions.

____ Absorbing Barrier

a. barriers that permit passage or acceptance of at least some innovations that encounter them

____ Permeable Barrier

b. the notion that a culture trait could have developed in two different places at the same time

____ Contagious Diffusion

c. barrier that totally halts the spread of an innovation

____ Expansion Diffusion

d. material or nonmaterial cultural development that results from need or stressful conditions

____ Hierarchical Diffusion

e. geographical transfer of culture traits by movements
of people across space

____ Relocation Diffusion

f. when expansion affects nearly uniformly all individuals and areas outward from a source region

____ Innovation

g. when movement of dispersal is either up or down
through a system of classes or centers

____ Independent Invention

h. when acceptance of or information about an innovation
spreads throughout a society

7

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

In the historical evolution of human culture, what is the significance of each of the three following epochs?
Paleolithic
Mesolithic
Neolithic

2.

Although the domestication of plants occurred simultaneously at different source areas, there were several uniformities that united them. List three of them.
1.
2.
3.

3.

Explain the difference between Environmental Determinism and Possibilism as theories of the relationship between culture and environment.

8

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

Since the end of the Paleolithic period the rate of innovation or invention has been: a. declining.
b. fluctuating without a trend.
c. increasing.
d. remaining about the same.

2.

The carrying capacity of a defined region would be lowest for: a. hunter-gatherers.
b. intensive commercial agriculture.
c. subsistence agriculturists.
d. urban-industrial people.

3.

The pyramid as a large monument is common to the ancient Egyptians and Mayans because: a. of pre-Columbian voyages from the Mediterranean to the Americas. b. of the diffusion of the pyramidal form across the Bering land bridge. c. of the reality of independent parallel invention.

d. the Mayans were descended from the ancient Egyptians.

4.

Which of the following was not an early culture hearth?
a. Andean region
b. Eastern Brazil
c. Mesopotamia
d. Syria

5.

From the highest to lowest, the most accurate representation of cultural units is: a. complex, realm, region, trait
b. realm, complex, region, trait
c. realm, region, complex, trait
d. trait, complex, region, realm

6.

Which of the following regional-plant domestication associations is incorrect? a. East Asia – coffee, cotton, okra, sorghum
b. Mediterranean – barley, celery, grapes, olives
c. Meso-America – beans, maize, manioc, squash
d. Southern and Southeastern Asia – papaya, potato, pumpkin, tomato

7.

The relationship between a culture group and the natural environment it occupies is termed:
a. cultural ecology.
b. cultural convergence.
c. cultural diffusion.
d. culture hearth.

8.

The Paleolithic period near the end of glaciation was characterized by: a. sophisticated agricultural societies based upon irrigation. b. subsistence tribal systems based on hunting and gathering. c. the complete absence of human populations as we know them. d. the development of culture hearths based on urban centers.

9

9.

The movement of Black Americans from the rural south to the cities of the Northern United States is an example of which kind of diffusion? a. permeable
b. contagious
c. expansion
d. relocation

10. The spread of Islam from its origins in Arabia outward across North Africa and the Middle East would be classified as what kind of diffusion? a. expansion
b. hierarchical
c. permeable
d. relocation
11. All early culture hearths were urban centered, but one that was particularly trade oriented was that of:
a. Egypt.
b. Mesopotamia.
c. Minoan Crete.
d. West Africa.
12. Pleistocene overkill is a term used to describe:
a. the destruction of many species of plants from excessive use of fire by Stone Age societies.
b. the massive loss of human life resulting from the onset of glaciation. c. the rapid increase in Paleolithic population due to warming of continents. d. the Stone Age loss of whole species of large animals on inhabited. continents

13. One distinguishing feature of all culture hearths of the Old World and the Americas is their:
a. abandonment as centers of culture and settlement in modern times. b. clustering in a band around the earth between 20 degrees south and 40 degrees north latitude.
c. confinement to lowland river valleys.
d. location on the western sides of continental land masses. 14. Which of the following is not a process of cultural change? a. acculturation
b. diffusion
c. innovation
d. segregation
15. The center of the domestication of maize (corn) was:
a. Andean Uplands.
b. Eastern Brazil.
c. Meso-America.
d. West Africa.
16. Which of the following is not an indicator of the cultural landscape? a. house types
b. kinship
c. size of settlements
d. transportation networks

10

17. Changes in culture, both major and minor, are induced by: a. diffusion and religion.
b. innovation and diffusion.
c. innovation and language.
d. language and religion.
18. Which of the following is best classified as an element of the Ideological Subsystem of culture?
a. gross national product per capita
b. land and property ownership systems
c. literature
d. schools
19. The emergence of culture hearths occurred largely during which period? a. Mesolithic
b. Neolithic
c. Paleolithic
d. Pleistocene
20. The belief that people, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development is termed:
a. cultural convergence.
b. environmental determinism.
c. multilinear evolution.
d. possibilism.
21. The abrupt abandonment of Chaco Canyon resulted from:
a. contagious diffusion.
b. the destruction of the life supporting environment.
c. the domestication of animals, particularly horses.
d. environmental determinism.
22. Syncretism is the process of:
a. delaying the path of diffusion.
b. adoption of the traits of a more dominant culture.
c. fusing the old and new elements of culture.
d. rigorously organizing agriculture activities.
23. Animal domestication most likely occurred during which period? a. Mesolithic
b. Neolithic
c. Paleolithic
d. Pleistocene
24. Cultural convergence is the:
a. merging of the original culture hearths.
b. sharing of technologies, organized structures, and culture traits among separated societies. c. process of acculturation.
d. abandonment of older culture hearths for modern centers.
25. Of all the early culture hearths, which ones were urban centered? a. all
b. none
c. only those in the Americas
d. only the Asian hearths

11

CHAPTER 3 – SPATIAL INTERACTION AND SPATIAL BEHAVIOR
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain the differences among the concepts of complementarity, transferability, and intervening opportunities. 2. Discuss the concept of distance decay and explain simple ways in which interaction can be measured. 3. Explain how an individual's activity space can be explored. 4. Discuss ways in which perception might affect an individual's spatial decision making. 5. Summarize the principal patterns of migration.

6. Distinguish among the different types of migration and provide examples of each from human history.

12

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their definitions.

____ Activity Space

a. flows are not random; certain places a greater attraction than others

____ Personal Communication Field

b. the decline of an activity or function with increasing distance from its point of origin

____ Complementarity

c. when a supply exists in one location and demand in another, making interaction desirable

____ Direction Bias

d. the tendency of humans to seek control of a portion of the Earth's surface or a community's sense of property and attachment toward its territory

____ Distance Decay

e. extended home range within which daily affairs are carried out

____ Intervening Opportunity

f. the volume of space and length of time within which activities must be confined

____ Space-Time Prism

g. the informational counterpart of a person’s activity space

____ Territoriality

h. when alternative sources of supply or demand are closer at hand

____ Transferability

i. the mobility of a commodity in physical and economic terms

2.

Match the conditions on the right with the appropriate concept from migration theory on the left.

____ Channelized Migration

a. when migrants return to their place of origin

____ Migration Field

b. when one moves from a town of 10,000 to a city of 500,000

____ Place Utility

c. exemplified by flows of Scandinavians to Minnesota, Wisconsin, and North Dakota

____ Pull Factor

d. measure of satisfaction with a given residential location

____ Push Factor

e. job opportunities at another location, for example

____ Counter Migration

f. poverty, war, and famine are examples

____ Step Migration

g. areas that dominate a locale’s in- and out-migration patterns

13

Fill In the Blanks

Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

For each of the following concepts of spatial interaction, explain how they can be used in accounting for migration behavior.
a.

b.

Transferability

c.

2.

Complementarity

Intervening Opportunity

For each of the following individuals or groups, give one example each of a push factor and a pull factor that might influence their decision to make a residential move.
a.

Recent High School Graduate
Push
Pull

b. Young Family in the City
Push
Pull
c. Recently Retired Couple
Push
Pull

3.

The spatial extent of individual activity spaces is conditioned by three important variables. Name each one and give a specific example of how it influences activity space.
1. ________________________ Example _______________________

2. ________________________ Example _______________________

3. ________________________ Example _______________________

14

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

The two most common responses to the uncertainty of natural hazards are to eliminate the uncertainty and: a. eliminate the hazard.
b. make it determinate and knowable.
c. move to a less hazardous area.
d. transfer the uncertainty to a higher power.

2.

Directional biases to information flows in North America tend to follow: a. east–west patterns.
b. north–south patterns.
c. northeast–southwest patterns.
d. northwest–southeast patterns.

3.

In the social applications of the gravity model, distance is usually measured by: a. linear miles.
b. number of telephones.
c. intervening opportunities.
d. travel time or cost.

4.

Which of the following would not be considered a reason to migrate for a contemporary American? a. changes in career course
b. changes in life course
c. individual personality requirements
d. changes in political affiliation

5.

With respect to migration fields:
a. areas near the point of origin constitute the largest segment. b. the size of the destination is not a factor.
c. the movement of retirees to Florida is a good example.
d. they are the same as channelized migration flows.

6.

City 1 (200,000 population) and City 2 (600,000 population) are 50 miles apart. The breaking point (BP) or boundary marking the outer edge of their respective trade areas is:
a. 12.5 miles from each city.
b. 18.3 miles from City 1.
c. 28.9 miles from City 2.
d. 32.3 miles from City 1.

7.

An example of a pull factor for migration is:
a. a desire to escape war and persecution.
b. a higher-paying job in a nearby city.
c. overcrowding in major cities.
d. reduction of rural farm workers.

8.

The length of time required to make a transcontinental telephone connection has declined from 14 minutes in 1920 to less than 30 seconds today. This is an example of:
a. critical distance.
b. space-cost convergence.
c. space-time convergence.
d. time-space prisms.

15

9.

A comparison of Figure 3.12(a) with Figure 3.12(b) would lead one to conclude that:
a. distance decay operates more strongly on the Old Order Mennonites. b. Old Order Mennonites are lazier than cash-economy Canadians. c. Old Order Mennonites have a longer critical distance.
d. rural cash-economy Canadians like to shop.

10. Of all types of trips taken by urban residents, that which is least influenced by distance decay is:
a. personal business trips.
b. school trips.
c. shopping trips.
d. work trips.
11. In most societies, the most mobile segment of the population is: a. retirees.
b. teenagers.
c. the middle aged.
d. young adults.
12. All of the following are included in Ravenstein’s laws of migration except: a. most migration proceeds step-by-step.
b. most migrants go only a short distance.
c. most migration is urban to rural.
d. most migrants are adults.
13. The gravity model and the potential model differ from each other because: a. the gravity model does not take distance into account.
b. the potential model makes no provision for size of places. c. the potential model accounts for interaction between many places, while the gravity model deals with only two places at a time. d. they do not differ at all.

14. The extent of individual activity space depends on all of the following except: a. means of mobility.
b. opportunity for interaction.
c. stage in the life course.
d. strength of territoriality.
15. People choose to settle in hazardous areas for all of the following reasons except: a. hazardous areas are often residentially desirable.
b. hazardous events are relatively rare.
c. no information is available about the natural hazards of any location. d. with time, the memory of previous hazardous events fades. 16.

Chain migration occurs when:
a. migrants go from rural areas to central cities in a series of less extreme locational changes.
b. an advance group of migrants, once established in a new area, is followed by second and subsequent migrations from the same home district.
c. large numbers of migrants return to their place of origin. d. migrants respond to push and pull factors simultaneously.

16

17.

18.

California produces vegetables in wintertime for sale to markets in the East and Midwest. This would be explained by the principle of:
a. complementarity.
b. directional bias.
c. intervening opportunity.
d. transferability.
Which of the following is not demonstrated by Figure 3.4?
a. Light truck trips in Chicago have a greater friction of distance than rail shipments in general.
b. The cost, by truck, is greater than the cost of shipping by rail. c. The steeper the slope of the interaction curve the lower the friction of distance.
d. Volume of interaction decreases with increasing distance.

19.

With respect to space-time prisms, they are steepest and spatially most narrow under which mode of transportation?
a. airplane
b. automobile
c. bicycle
d. walking

20.

The value of a place as a migration destination is known as its: a. critical distance.
b. directional bias.
c. place utility.
d. spatial search.

21.

The presence or absence of connecting channels strongly affects the likelihood that spatial interaction will occur. This is an indication of: a. distance bias.
b. network bias.
c. directional bias.
d. critical distance.

22.

Female migrants are motivated primarily by:
a. the desire to find marriage partners.
b. push factors associated with civil wars.
c. economic pushes and pulls.
d. changes in the life cycle.

23.

Which of the following is not one of the three interrelated considerations in transferability as an expression of the mobility of a commodity? a. the characteristics and value of the product.
b. the distance measured, in time and money penalties, over which it must be moved.
c. the ability of the commodity to bear the costs of movement. d. the product’s ability to meet the different regulatory laws of the areas through which it moves.

17

24.

Because of the multiple work, child-care, and home maintenance tasks, women’s trip behavior differs from that of men by the fact that they make: a. more but shorter trips.
b. fewer but longer trips.
c. fewer but shorter trips.
d. more but longer trips.

25.

After work and family proximity, the factors most often reported as a reason for interstate moves by adults is:
a. climate.
b. standard of living.
c. political system.
d. unfamiliarity.

18

CHAPTER 4 – POPULATION: WORLD PATTERNS, REGIONAL
TRENDS

Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Explain the basic history of world population growth.
2. List and detail the various statistics that geographers and demographers use to measure fertility and mortality. 3. Analyze a country's population situation based on its population pyramid. 4. Calculate a rate of natural increase and derive a population's doubling time. 5. Describe and explain the demographic transition model and apply it to the Western and non-Western experiences. 6. Explain the demographic equation.

7. Summarize the location of the world's population.
8. Discuss population density and overpopulation.
9. Discuss the problems of collecting and analyzing population data as well as the challenges of forecasting population trends.
10. Compare and contrast the leading theories of population control.

19

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____ Cohort

a. a graphic device that represents a population’s
age and sex composition

____ Crude Birth Rate

b. the average number of children a women will
bear throughout her childbearing years

____ Dependency Ratio

c. the frequency of occurrence of an event
during a given time frame for a designated
population

____ Doubling Time

d. annual number of births per 1000 population

____ Infant Mortality Ratio

e. birth plus immigration is equal to deaths plus
emigration

____ Mortality Rate

f. the time it takes for a population to double in
size

____ Natural Increase

g. annual number of deaths per 1000 population

____ Population Pyramid

h. a population group unified by a specific
common characteristic

____ Rates

i. the number of deaths of infants aged one year or
less per 1000 live births

____ Total Fertility Rate

j. the measure of the number of dependents that
each 100 people in the productive years must
support

____ Zero Population Growth

k. birth rate minus the death rate

2.

Using Chapter 4 and the Appendix, match the following countries with their respective stages of growth. ____ Austria

a. Rapid Growth

____ China

b. Stability

____ Colombia

c. Decline

____ Denmark
____ Ghana
____ Pakistan
____ Somalia
____ South Korea
____ United States

20

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following statements by supplying the required answers. 1.

Thomas Malthus, an English demographer, clergyman, and economist, stated that unchecked populations increase _____________ while food production increases only ____________. Growth of populations is only limited by the means of ____________ and will continue to increase with increases in such means unless _________________ ____________________________. Populations may be kept in balance and their reproductive capacity inhibited by either _________________________ or _________________________ checks.

The Neo-Malthusians contended that in human populations, fertility behavior is conditioned by __________________, not solely biological capacities. The world population has grown to __________ without the disasters predicted by Malthus. Although Malthus’ theories hold true for some animal populations, in transferring these to the human populations, Malthus failed to recognize _________________________________________________________________.

2.

What were the major impacts of international migration on both the origin and receiving countries?
Origin Country
1.
2.
3.
Receiving Country
1.
2.
3.

3.

List the four conclusions that can be drawn concerning the distribution of the global populations.
1.
2.
3.
4.

21

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given:
1.

The demographic equation is represented by the sum of:
a. natural change and crude birth rates.
b. natural change and dependency ratios.
c. net migration and dependency ratios.
d. net migration and natural change.

2.

Overpopulation is equated:
a. in the first stage of the demographic cycle with high fertility rates. b. with high birth rates.
c. with imbalanced fertility rates and dependency ratios.
d. with a continuing imbalance between numbers of people and carrying capacity.

3.

Which of the following is not concerned when projecting a country’s population? a. education and literacy rates
b. government policies regarding population growth
c. stage of demographic transition
d. the status of women

4.

Urbanization has:
a. decreased arithmetic density but increased physiological density b. decreased both arithmetic and physiological densities
c. increased arithmetic density but decreased physiological density d. increased both arithmetic and physiological densities

5.

Demographic momentum states that:
a. an immediate end to population growth will occur when the replacement rate reaches 2.1. b. any child born today will have a life expectancy of at least 75 years. c. our older populations will continue to live longer due to advances in technology.

d.

the consequences of high fertility rates among young people will be realized as they work their way through the population pyramid.

6.

Continued high birth rates and rapidly declining death rates describe which stage of the demographic cycle?
a. Stage 1
b. Stage 2
c. Stage 3
d. Stage 4

7.

Currently, the world’s population stands at approximately: a. 3 billion persons.
b. 6 billion persons.
c. 6.3 billion persons.
d. 11.3 billion persons.

8.

If a country’s rate of natural increase has declined, then the doubling time for its population has: a. been reduced to zero.
b. decreased.
c. increased.
d. remained the same.

22

9.

What total fertility rate would be necessary just to replace the world’s existing population?
a. 1.0
b. 2.1
c. 3.7
d. 5.8

10. A country with a population of 2,000,000, a birth rate of 25, and a death rate of 20 would have how many births and deaths annually?
a. 500,000 births and 400,000 deaths
b. 50,000 births and 40,000 deaths
c. 50,000 births and 10,000 deaths
d. 500,000 births and 10,000 deaths
11. The continent with the highest birth rates is:
a. Africa.
b. Europe.
c. North America.
d. South America.
12. Which of the following statements is not correct?
a. Carrying capacity is the number of people an area can support given current technological conditions.
b. Overcrowding is a reflection of population per unit area. c. Overpopulation is a value judgment.
d. Underpopulation occurs when a country has too few people to develop its resources.
13. An important factor contributing to the reduction in death rates in developing nations is:
a. a greater use of contraceptives.
b. access to educational facilities.
c. the pronounced youthfulness of their populations.
d. the very high birth rates.
14. In his theories, Malthus failed to recognize:
a. changes in human dietary patterns.
b. changes in technology.
c. the discovery of new inhabitable regions.
d. war and diseases.
15. A population pyramid with a wide base narrowing as the age cohorts progress indicates:
a. decline.
b. rapid growth.
c. slow growth.
d. stability.
16. Proportionately, the greatest decreases in infant mortality rates have occurred in: a. developing rural nations.
b. South and Central America.
c. the urbanized areas of South Asia.
d. urbanized industrial nations.

23

17. Emigrant groups are dominated by:
a. middle-aged families with two or more children.
b. young families.
c. retirees.
d. young single males.
18. The population explosion after World War II reflected the effects of: a. drastically reduced death rates in developing countries without simultaneous and compensating reductions in births.
b. government policies in Europe attempting to repopulate the war-torn countries. c. massive industrialization attempts in both developing and developed countries. d. the heavy death toll during the war with fewer births occurring. 19. The region of the world that contributes the most to world population growth is: a. Africa.

b. Asia, excluding India and China.
c. China.
d. India.
20. The four great clusters of population in the world are:
a. East Asia, South Africa, Europe, North America.
b. East Asia, South Asia, Europe, Africa.
c. East Asia, South Asia, Europe, North America.
d. East Asia, South Asia, North America, South America.
21. Birth and death rates are described as “crude” because: a. the total numbers of births and deaths can never be calculated accurately. b. they relate to the changes without any regard to the age or sex composition of the population.

c. the infant mortality rate is separate from the birth and death calculations. d. there is no worldwide standard of what constitutes a birth or a death. 22. The single greatest health disparity between developed and developing nations is the: a. birth rate.

b. infant mortality rate.
c. maternal mortality rate.
d. death rate.
23. Population projections are:
a. suitable as predictions.
b. based on assumptions for the future using current data.
c. used for assessing crude death rates.
d. used only for countries that have annual censuses.
24. The highest population densities are found in:
a. Canada.
b. South Africa.
c. South America.
d. Western Europe.

24

CHAPTER 5 – LANGUAGE AND RELIGION: MOSAICS OF CULTURE
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Understand the basic distribution of the world's living languages. 2. Explain how languages are classified.
3. Map the basic pattern of world languages.
4. Describe how languages spread, change, and evolve.
5. Cite examples of how language affects the cultural landscape. 6. Explain how religions are classified.
7. Describe the basic beliefs of the major world religions and map their historical expansion and current geographic distribution.

25

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____ Value System

a. a faith claiming applicability to all humans

____ Polytheism

b. involves acceptance of a religious leader, healer,
or worker of magic who can intercede with and
interpret the world

____ Universalizing Religion

c. a commonly held set of beliefs, understandings,
and controls that unite members of a culture
group

____ Animism

d. a religion that adheres to a belief in many gods

____ Shamanism

e. an indifference to, or a rejection of, religion and religious belief

____ Tribal Religion

f. belief that life exists in all objects or that objects
are the abode of the dead, spirits, or gods
g. fusion of two or more religions

____ Secularism

h. an ethnic religion specific to a small, localized pre-industrial society

____ Syncretism

i. religious system uniquely identified with
localized culture groups having close ties to nature

2.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____ Language

a. the increase or relocation through time in an
area over which a language is spoken

____ Language Family

b. differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, rhythm, and speed that sets speakers of the same language apart from each other

____ Protolanguage

c. a group of languages descending from a single, earlier tongue

____ Language Spread

d. an organized system of spoken words, used to
communicate with mutual understanding

____ Speech Community

e. an earlier language from which modern words derive their origin

____ Standard Language

f. a group of people who speak a common language

____ Dialects

g. established language used for communication by
peoples with mutually incomprehensible native tongues

____ Vernacular

h. place names as expressions of language

____ Lingua Franca

i. nonstandard language or version of a language
that is native to a local area

____ Toponyms

j. comprises the accepted community norms of syntax, vocabulary, and pronunciation

26

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

For each of the three primary forms of spatial diffusion, give one example each of a language and a religion that follows that form in its spread. Expansion
Relocation
Hierarchical

2.

Distinguis h between a pidgin and a creole.

3.

Explain why a religion such as Christianity is classified as universalizing, while a religion such as Hinduism is classified as ethnic.

27

Multiple Choice Questions
1.

Which of the following serves as an official language of more countries than any other?
a. French
b. English
c. Arabic
d. Spanish

2.

Which of the following would not qualify as a Germanic language? a. Welsh
b. English
c. Dutch
d. Norwegian

3.

Hindi, Urdu, and Punjabi are languages common to:
a. Afghanistan and Tibet.
b. Iraq and Iran.
c. India and Pakistan.
d. Indonesia and the Philippines.

4.

The part of the world that is still dominated by tribal religions is: a. sub-Saharan Africa.
b. Western Europe.
c. Australia.
d. Southeastern Asia.

5.

North Africa and the Middle East are dominated by which language family? a. Uralic -Altaic
b. Bantu-Bushman-Hottentot
c. Semitic-Hamitic
d. Indo-European

6.

Of the four major world religions, the one that has experienced the most diverse geographical diffusion is:
a. Hinduism.
b. Buddhism.
c. Islam.
d. Christianity.

7.

Linguistic diffusion is usually the result of:
a. common origin.
b. distance decay.
c. innovation.
d. migration and conquest.

8.

The spread of Islam from its origins in Arabia outward across North Africa and the Middle East would be classified as what kind of diffusion:
a. hierarchical
b. relocation
c. exp ansion
d. chain

28

9.

Among the following, the most animistic would be:
a. Shintoism.
b. Buddhism.
c. Hinduism.
d. Confucianism.

10. A major religion that has essentially disappeared from its area of origin is: a. Judaism.
b. Hinduism.
c. Islam.
d. Buddhism.
11. Within the United States, Baptists are regionally dominant in the: a. New England states.
b. Mountain West.
c. South.
d. Upper Midwest.
12. The main source of Jewish immigrants to the United States in the 19th century was: a. Eastern Europe.
b. Southern Europe.
c. the Middle East.
d. Israel.
13. Religions that tend to be expansionary, carrying their message to new peoples and areas, are termed: a. ethnic.
b. universalizing.
c. tribal.
d. secular.
14. The religious taboo on the consumption of pork is most geographically evident in: a. sub-Saharan Africa.
b. Southeast Asia.
c. North Africa and the Middle East.
d. Western Europe.
15. Which of the following regional–lingua Franca associations is incorrect? a. Western Europe – French
b. India – Hindu
c. China – Mandarin
d. North Africa – Arabic
16. The Upland Southern dialect spread into all of the following areas except: a. the middle Mississippi Valley.
b. the lower Great Lakes.
c. the Gulf Coast.
d. Arkansas and Missouri.
17. A boundary line separating distinct dialectical differences in word choice is termed: a. isodiet.
b. isophone.
c. isogloss.
d. isochrone.

29

18. Language and religion are important components of which subsystem of culture? a. technological
b. ideological
c. protological
d. sociological
19. The terms hegira, Allah, mosque, and Sunni are most closely associated with which part of the world: a. South Asia
b. Eastern Europe
c. China and Japan
d. the Middle East
20. The present-day spatial distribution of Buddhism is best described as: a. China, Tibet, Siberia, Korea.
b. Tibet, India, Middle East, Japan.
c. Southeast Asia, Tibet, China, Mongolia, Japan.
d. Northern India, China, Southeast Asia.
21. Of the 10,000 to 15,000 different tongues humans probably spoke in prehistory, about what number still remain?
a. 50
b. 600
c. 2000
d. 6000
22. Of the principal recognized language clusters of the world, which one contains the languages spoken by about half of the world’s people?
a. Afro-Asiatic
b. Ura lic -Altaic
c. Sino-Tibetan
d. Indo-European
23. The emergence of a particular dialect as the standard language of a society can occur for all of the following reasons except:
a. Identified with the speech of the most prestigious, higher ranking, and most powerful memb ers of the larger speech community.
b. It is the dialect identified with the capital or center of power at the time of national development.
c. It emerges from a conscious decision by speakers of all the major dialects of the language to blend them all together.
d. It can be based on norms established and accepted in the theater, universities, public speeches, and literary communication.
24. The study of the evolution of place names, such as the origin of place names ending in chester (from the Latin “castra,” meaning camp), is called: a. linguistic geography
b. toponymy
c. secularism
d. sociolinguistics
25. Within North America, which of the following region–dominant religion associations is incorrect? a. Quebec – Roman Catholic
b. Utah – Mormon
c. Upper Midwest – Lutheran
d. U.S. South – Jewish

30

CHAPTER 6 – ETHNIC GEOGRAPHY: THREADS OF DIVERSITY
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Explain the differences between ethnicity and race as concepts in cultural geography. 2. Discuss the relationships among ethnicity, language, religion, and culture. 3. Identify the major waves of immigration in United States history and list the major immigrant groups associated with each wave.

4. Explain the difference between acculturation and Assimilation and give exa mples of both. 5. Define "charter cluster" and explain the doctrine of "first effective settlement". 6. Describe how geographers study ethnic clusters.

7. Outline the history of African American dispersions in the United States. 8. Describe the spatial pattern of Hispanic populations in the United States. 9. Describe the geographic distribution of Asian-Americans.

10. Define "segregation" and describe how geographers study it. What is meant by "external" and "internal" controls?
11. Describe how ethnic concentrations can shift.
12. Describe and explain the process of cultural transfer.
13. Using examples, explain how the ethnic landscape helps geographers study ethnicity.

31

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____ Ethnicity

a. the process of development of human traits as
a result of interaction with the environment

____ Ethnocentrism

b. populations that feel themselves bound together
by a common origin and set off from other
groups by ties of culture, race, religion, language, or nationality

____ Ethnic Group

c. the loss of all ethnic traits as a result of a complete blending with the host society

____ Assimilation

d. larger cultural context within which new ethnic
groups usually adapt after arrival

____ Adaptation

e. derived from a Greek word meaning “people” or
“nation”

____ Host Society

f. a feeling that one’s own ethnic group is superior
to others

____ Amalgamation

g. the process of adoption by immigrants of the
values, attitudes, ways of behavior, and speech
of the receiving society

____ Acculturation

h. a theory that rejects immigrant conformity to
a dominant culture, but views society as a
merger into a composite mainstream of the many
traits of all constituent ethnic groups

32

2.

Match the following spatial concepts of ethnicity with their proper definitions.

____ Charter Group

a. an ethnic cluster that persists because its
occupants choose to preserve it through
internal group cohesiveness

____ Ethnic Islands

b. the extent to which members of an ethnic group
are not uniformly distributed in relation to the
rest of the population

____ Cluster Migration

c. an ethnic or racial cluster that is perpetuated
or endures as a result of external constraints
and discriminatory actions

____ Chain Migration

d. the dominant first arrivals to an area, establishing the cultural norms and standards against which other immigrant groups are measured

____ Segregation

e. the assemblage in one area of the relatives,
friends, or unconnected compatriots of that
area’s first arrivals

____ Ethnic Provinces

f. the movement of culturally distinctive groups to
specific areas of settlement

____ Colonies

g. very large regions that have been become
associated with numerically important ethnic
or racial aggregations

____ Ethnic Enclave

h. enduring ethnic residential clusters that serve
mainly as points of entry for members of a
particular ethnic group

____ Ghetto

i. dispersed rural concentrations of later ethnic
groups to arrive in a region or country who
“leapfrog” earlier settled areas

33

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

Explain the differences between behavioral (cultural) assimilation and structural assimilation of ethnic immigrants in a host society.

2.

List and describe the four functions or roles of self-elected residential segregation by ethnic groups in American urban areas.
1.

2.

____________ - ___________________________________________________

3.

____________ - ___________________________________________________

4.

3.

____________ - ___________________________________________________

____________ - ___________________________________________________

List the three common unifying bonds of ethnicity.
1.
2.
3.

34

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

Which of the following ethnic group – geographical concentrations is incorrect? a. Puerto Ricans – New York City and the Northeast
b. Cubans – Miami and South Florida
c. Central American Hispanics – Los Angeles and the Southwest d. Japanese – Chicago and the Midwest

2.

Which of the following black ghetto forms had blacks assigned to small dwellings in alleys and back streets within and bounding white communities? a. early southern ghetto
b. classic southern ghetto
c. early northern ghetto
d. classic northern ghetto

3.

The most rapidly growing immigrant component of the U.S. population in recent years has been:
a. Hispanics.
b. Asians.
c. Africans.
d. Canadians.

4.

Which of the following would not be classified as an ethnic province in present-day North America?
a. French Canada
b. Native American Indian areas of the Southwest and Plains
c. Scandinavian states of the Great Lakes
d. Hispanic southern border states of the West

5.

A frequently used measure of the extent of structural assimilation of a minority group is: a. language.
b. residential segregation.
c. political action committees.
d. ethnocentrism.

6.

Approximately 18 % of the 2000 Census respondents reported speaking a language other than English in the home; for more than half of them that
language was:
a. Chinese.
b. French.
c. Japanese.
d. Spanish.

7.

Since the 1950s, immigration into the United States has been comprised mainly of: a. Eastern and southern Europeans.
b. Central and northern Europeans.
c. Africans.
d. Mexicans, Cubans, and Asians.

35

8.

Canada’s three distinctive immigration streams were dominated by which groups, respectively?
a. British, French, West Indians
b. French, British, Continental Europeans
c. British, Continental Europeans, West Indians
d. French, British, Asians

9.

Asian populations in the United States are disproportionately concentrated in: a. New England.
b. the South.
c. the West.
d. the Great Plains.

10. The system used for bounding properties in North America that results in the most irregular and unsystematic property lines is the:
a. rectangular survey system.
b. long lot system.
c. no-enclosure system.
d. metes and bounds system.
11. The land subdivision system that is common to both the Rio Grande Valley of New Mexico and Texas and the St. Lawrence Valley of Canada is the: a. long lot system
b. ethnic enclave system
c. rectangular survey system
d. metes and bounds system
12. Based on the index of dissimilarity for black, Hispanic, and Asian populations of major metropolitan areas of the United States:
a. Asians are more segregated than either blacks or Hispanics. b. Hispanics and Asians are about equally segregated.
c. All three groups are about equally segregated.
d. Hispanics and blacks are generally more segregated than Asians. 13. The urban ethnic residential cluster that is perpetuated by external constraints and discriminatory actions is the:
a. enclave.
b. ghetto.
c. colony.
d. community.
14. The 19th century immigrant slum in the United States developed near the heart of the central city in response to two factors:
a. public transportation and employment opportunities.
b. the availability of cheap housing near the CBD and nearby skilled factory jobs. c. entry-level employment opportunities and the availability of cheap housing near the CBD. d. nearby skilled factory jobs and public transportation.

15. Which of the following would be least likely to unify the ethnicity of a group of individuals?
a. shared ancestry
b. a set of distinctive traditions
c. a set of in-group interactions and relationships
d. hereditary racial characteristics

36

16. When an ethnic group of relatively new arrivals has been completely integrated into the economic and cultural mainstream of a society, that group is said to have been:
a. assimilated.
b. acculturated.
c. amalgamated.
d. adapted.
17. Which of the following would not be considered a charter group for the area with which they are associated?
a. French – Quebec
b. Spanish – New Mexico
c. Asians – California
d. Mormons – Utah
18. The settlement of the Salt Lake Basin by the Mormons is an example of: a. chain migration.
b. assimilation.
c. nationalism.
d. cluster migration.
19. In the United States, English is the national language, English common law is the basis for the American legal system, and English place names dominate in much of the country. This pattern is a manifestation of:

a. ethnocentrism.
b. first effective settlement.
c. structural assimilation.
d. immigrant tipping point.
20. Immigration into the United States of African-origin populations occurred primarily during which period in American history?
a. before 1790
b. 1870–1920
c. since 1960
d. after World War I
21. Traditional patterns of African-American residence and livelihood in the United States have been affected by all of the following except the:
a. decline of subsistence farming.
b. mechanization of southern agriculture.
c. demand for factory labor in southern cities since World War I. d. general urbanization of the American economy.
22. The rapid growth in the number of Asian immigrants to the United States since the 1970s has been attributed to: a. changes in immigration laws favoring family reunification and illegal immigration.

b. illegal immigration and the refugee resettlement program after the Vietnam War.
c. changes in immigration laws favoring family reunification and the refugee resettlement program after the Vietnam War.
d. the impending 1997 reversion of Hong Kong to mainland China and the refugee resettlement program after the Vietnam War.

37

23. After the Chinese, the second largest U.S. Asian ethnic grouping is the: a. Japanese.
b. Filipino.
c. Asian Indian.
d. Vietnamese.
24. Ethnic clustering is of decreasing relevance to which of the following groups? a. Hispanics
b. Asian Americans
c. French Canadians
d. African Americans
25. In terms of numbers, the largest group of Hispanic-Americans residing in the United States is: a. Mexican.
b. Puerto Rican.
c. Cuban.
d. Honduran.

38

CHAPTER 7 – FOLK AND POPULAR CULTURE:
DIVERSITY AND UNIFORMITY
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Define folk culture and popular culture and distinguish between the two using specific examples. 2. Identify the Anglo American culture hearths.

3. Describe folk building traditions in different regions of North America. 4. Discuss how geographers can use nonmaterial folk culture to understand the geography of a country, region, or place.
5. Identify the folk cultural regions of the United States.
6. Explain the relationship between globalization and popular culture. 7. Discuss how the evolution of the shopping mall reflect changes in American culture and geography. 8. Define and give an example of a vernacular region.

39

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____ Folk Culture

a. behavioral patterns, artistic traditions, and conventions regulating social life

____ Material Culture

b. the oral tradition of a group, comprised of proverbs, prayers, expressions, superstitions, beliefs, tales, and legends

____ Nonmaterial Culture

c. the collective heritage of institutions, customs, skills, dress, and way of life of a small, stable, closely knit, usually rural community

____ Folk Customs

d. the practice of eating dirt

____ Vernacular House Styles

e. the way of life of the mass of the population,
which substitutes for and replaces folk and ethnic differences. Secular institutions are in control, and the production and consumption of mass produced/machine-made goods is dominant.

____ Geophagy

f. the built environment, the landscape created by humans, and objects used by members of a cultural group

____ Folklore

g. learned behavior shared by a society that
prescribes accepted and common modes of conduct

____ Folkways

h. mentifacts and sociofacts of culture expressed
in oral tradition, folksong and story, and customary behavior

____ Popular Culture

i. styles of houses in traditional form but without
formal plans or drawings

2.

Match the following vernacular house types with the folk culture regions with which they are associated. (Note: A region may appear more than once.) ____ Central Hall House

a. Southern Tidewater

____ Shotgun House

b. Utah

____ Grenier House

c. Mississippi Delta

____ Huguenot-Plan House

d. Chesapeake Bay

____ Charleston Single House

e. Southern New England

____ Classic I House

f. Delaware Valley

____ Four-Over-Four House

g. Lower St. Lawrence Valley

____ Gable Front House
____ Saltbox House
____ Norman Cottage

40

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

Identify the two elements of diversity in most societies and the one spreading trend toward uniformity, and describe the role of each one in shaping culture.
1.

2.

____________ - _____________________________________________

3.

2.

____________ - ____________________________________________

____________ - _____________________________________________

Name the five important nonmaterial elements of folk culture. 1. ___________________________ 2.______________________________ 3. ___________________________ 4. ______________________________ 5. ____________________________

3. Describe how popular culture differs from folk or ethnic culture.

41

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

Which of the following vernacular house style – culture hearth associations is Correct?
a. gable front – New England
b. four-over-four – St. Lawrence Valley
c. classic I – Hudson Valley
d. central hall – Tidewater

2.

Which of the following statements is not true with respect to the Midwest culture region?
a. It is the least distinctive and most intermixed of the original eastern culture regions.
b. It is the most Americanized of the culture regions.
c. The interior contains evidences of artifacts carried only by migrants from the Upland and Lowland South.
d. It is a conglomeration of inputs from the Upland South, Northeast, and Middle Atlantic Regions.

3.

In the United States, folk medicines, cures, and health wisdom are best developed and preserved in which areas?
a. New England and the St. Lawrence Valley
b. the Hudson Valley and Chesapeake region
c. Midwest and rural West
d. Upland South and Southern Appalachia

4.

Which of the following is likely to be the least permanent element of folk culture? a. cuisine
b. folk music
c. folklore
d. architecture

5.

Which of the following groups would be least likely to participate in the popular culture of late 20th century America?
a. Mormons of Utah
b. Native Americans of the West
c. Midwest Amish
d. Louisiana Cajuns

6.

Among regional variations in the expression of popular culture, which of the following is true (refer to figure 7.32)?

a.
b.
c.
d.

Cigarette smoking and snack nut consumption are high in the same region of the country.
Membership in fraternal orders tends to concentrate in the urban East. Television viewing of baseball, snack nut consumption, and cigarette smoking all seem to be popular in the North.
Snack nut eating and membership in fraternal orders show a strong spatial association.

42

7.

Although country music had become a national commonplace by the late 1970s, country music radio stations are still most heavily concentrated in which region? a. Upland South
b. Midwest
c. Lowland South
d. Mid-Atlantic

8.

Which of the following is not true with respect to popular culture? a. Its diffusion is marked by the nearly simultaneous adoption over wide areas of both material and nonmaterial elements.
b. Recognizable culture hearths and migration paths are definable for most popular culture elements.
c. Many elements of popular culture are oriented toward the automobile. d. Both material and nonmaterial elements of popular culture are subject to the same widespread uniformities.

9.

The initial unifying agent that preceded the emergence of popular culture was the: a. steamboat.
b. television set.
c. printing press.
d. shopping mall.

10. Which of the following is not an effect of popular culture? a. Uniformity is substituted for differentiation.
b. The individual is liberated through exposure to a broader range of available opportunities.
c. It obliterates locally distinctive lifestyles.
d. Change in general and the adoption of innovations proceed slowly. 11. Because of its physical isolation from much of early settled America, the folk cultural region that has retained folk artifacts and customs more than any other is the:

a. Upland South.
b. Lowland South.
c. Midwest.
d. North.
12. The region of American folk culture that exceeded all others in its influence was the: a. Midwest.
b. North.
c. Upland South.
d. Mid-Atlantic.
13. The union of Anglo-American folk song, English country dancing, and West African musical patterns best describes the folk song tradition known as: a. country.
b. black.
c. bluegrass.
d. jazz.

43

14. To the folk cultural geographer, the study of fencing as an adjunct of agricultural land use is useful for all of the following except as:
a. a guide to settlement periods and stages.
b. evidence of the resources and environmental conditions the settlers found. c. an indicator of the folk cultural traditions of farm populations. d. an indicator of the barn types prevalent at any time period. 15. All house types of the eastern United States can be traced to which three source regions?

a. Hudson Va lley, Delaware Valley, St. Lawrence Valley
b. Middle Atlantic, Southern Tidewater, Mississippi Delta
c. New England, Middle Atlantic, Lower Chesapeake
d. St. Lawrence Valley, New England, Southern Tidewater
16. Thick-walled, long and single-storied with a flat or low-pitched earth-covered roof best describes which house type?
a. the grenier house of rural Louisiana
b. the Spanish adobe house
c. the four-over-four house of the Delaware Valley
d. the saltbox house of New England
17. In terms of housing styles, the southern hearths evolved differently from the northern hearths primarily because:
a. of the lack of traditional building materials.
b. of differences in climate and ethnic cultural mix.
c. the North was more affluent than the South.
d. the South was settled later than the North, and its housing evolved from existing plans.
18. The hearth region that had the most widespread influence on American vernacular architecture was:
a. Chesapeake Bay.
b. New England.
c. Hudson Valley.
d. Delaware Valley.
19. Which of the following North American culture hearth – orig inal ethnic settler source area associations is not correct?
a. Hudson Valley – rural southern England
b. St. Lawrence Valley – northwestern France
c. Upper Canada – England and Scotland
d. Delaware Valley – England, Scotland, Sweden, Germany
20. Which of the following is not an aspect of material culture? a. furniture
b. tools
c. folk songs
d. musical instruments

44

21. With respect to the distinction between folk and ethnic as expressed in foods, all of the following are true except:
a. Until recent times, most societies have been intimately and largely concerned with food production.
b. In most world regions, ethnic and cultural intermixture is immediately apparent.
c. Most areas of the world have been occupied by a complex mix of peoples migrating in search of food and carrying food habits and preferences with them in their migrations.
d. Food habits are not just matters of sustenance but are intimately connected with the totality of culture or custom.
22. Which of the following popular music styles – folk music traditions associations is incorrect?
a. minstrel show ragtime and blues – jazz
b. Scottish bagpipe sound and church congregation singing – bluegrass c. Southern white ancestral folk music – country music
d. African-American folk songs of the rural South – urban blues 23. The regional shopping mall, as an exp ression of popular culture, is distinguished by: a.
b.
c.
d.

its origin in the mass transit era of the early 20th century. its complete absence in the southeastern United States.
the fact that Americans spend more of their time in malls than anywhere else except home and work.
their complete replacement of traditional central business districts in older medium-sized and large cities.

24. Ethnic culture can be distinguished from both popular culture and folk culture by virtue of:
a. its preservation as behavioral norms that set a recognizable national, social, or religious minority group apart from a majority culture.
b. its being a way of life of the mass population, reducing regional folk and ethnic differences.
c. its geographical isolation and tradition, which keeps it separate, distinctive, and unchanging.
d. its being exclusively rural as opposed to urban.
25. Early cultural hearths along the U.S. east coast were established as a result of: a. expansion diffusion.
b. relocation diffusion.
c. syncretism.
d. hierarchical diffusion.

45

CHAPTER 8 – LIVELIHOOD AND ECONOMY:
PRIMARY ACTIVITIES
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Define and give examples of the five categories of economic activity. 2. Define agriculture.
3. Explain and give examp les of intensive, extensive, and urban subsistence farming. 4. Explain what is meant by the Green Revolution and discuss its successes and failures. 5. Explain Von Thunen's model.

6. Differentiate between intensive and extensive commercial agriculture using specific examples. 7. Define plantation and give modern examples.
8. Define natural resources and differentiate between renewable and nonrenewable resources. 9. Discuss the state of the world's fishing and forestry industries. 10. Compare and contrast metallic and nonmetallic mineral extraction. 11. Discuss the challenges of trade in primary products.

46

Matching Questions
1.

Match the terms on the left with the identifying characteristics on the right.

____ Green Revolution

a. increased agricultural productivity due to
improvements in seeds and land management
techniques

____ Commercial Economy

b. market competition is the primary force shaping
the production patterns

____ Extensive Commercial
Agriculture

c. self-sufficiency, high production per acre, and
high population densities

____ Intensive Commercial
Agriculture

d. employing large amounts of capital or labor
per unit, high crop yields, and high market
value per unit of land

____ Extensive Subsistence
Agriculture

e. government agencies regulate quantities
produced and locational patterns of production

____ Intensive Subsistence
Agriculture

f. naturally occurring materials that are
perceived to be useful and necessary for the
human population

____ Maximum Sustainable Yield g. little exchange of goods and only limited need for markets
____ Shifting Cultivation

h. eventual depletion of a resource in areas of
common property due to the absence of
collective controls

____ Subsistence Economy

i. the maximum rate of the use of a resource that
will not impair its ability to be renewed

____ Nomadic Herding

j. the wandering but controlled movement of
livestock

____ Planned Economy

k. self-sufficiency, low production per acre, and
low population densities

____ Resource

l. materials that are present in finite amounts and
cannot be replaced

____ Renewable Resource

m. materials that can be consumed and then
restored

____ Nonrenewable Resources

n. abandoning plots once their fertility has
declined

____ Tragedy of the Commons

o. typified by large wheat farms and livestock
ranching

47

2.

Classify the following occupations as being either primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary, or quinary. a. Assembly Line Worker

__________________

b. Cashier

__________________

c. Coal Miner

__________________

d. College Professor

__________________

e. Construction Worker

__________________

f. Farmer

__________________

g. Fast Food Worker

__________________

h. Researcher

__________________

i. Senator

__________________

j. Stockbroker

__________________

k. Vice President of a Corporation __________________
l. Wholesaler

__________________

48

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1. If primary commodities are an important portion of total international trade, then why has the export of these commodities from less developed countries been considered “as unequal and potentially damaging”?

2.

The two major belts of commercial forests are found in:
1.
2.

3.

______________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________

List three important positive aspects of the Green Revolution and three negative aspects.
Positive:
1.

______________________________________________________________

2.

______________________________________________________________

3.

______________________________________________________________

Negative:
1.

______________________________________________________________

2.

______________________________________________________________

3.

______________________________________________________________

49

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

Nonrenewable resources:
a. are living things such as fish or forests.
b. cannot be replaced by any natural processes within our lifetimes. c. have reached maximum exploitation yields.
d. were unrecognized by the early settlers.

2.

The developing nations account for what percentage of hardwood exports? a. 15
b. 30
c. 65
d. 90

3.

Genetic improvements in which two crops form the basis of the Green Revolution? a. corn and rice
b. wheat and corn
c. wheat and rice
d. wheat and sorghum

4.

Countries may institute farm subsidies to:
a. assure domestic producers a market price that reflects production costs. b. distort both patterns of economic agricultural production and consumption. c. impose import barriers.
d. provide taxes for the government.
Whether a material is considered to be a resource is a function of: a. cultural circumstances.
b. the economic situation of a particular country.
c. physical circumstances.
d. the location of the material.

5.

6.

The largest and most continuous stand of softwoods can be found: a. across the northern latitudes from Scandinavia through Siberia to North America.
b. around the equator.
c. in the Amazon Basin of Brazil.
d. in the Appalachian, Rocky and Coastal Mountain ranges.

7.

Which of the following statements regarding the role of women in agriculture is not correct?
a. The advances from the Green Revolution were unkind to women in that they reduced the female role in agricultural development programs. b. Women farmers are responsible for at least 50% of the world’s food. c. Women farmers share equally in the rewards from agriculture with men Farmers.

d. Women farmers work longer hours for lower wages than men farmers.

50

8.

The pattern of international commodity flows in primary commodities is from the: a. producers in the less developed countries to the processors and consumers in the less developed countries.
b. producers in the less developed countries to the processors and consumers in the more developed countries.
c. producers in the more developed countries to the processors and consumers in the less developed countries.
d. producers in the more developed countries to the processors and consumers in the more developed countries.

9.

A usable resource is:
a. a renewable resource.
b. the amount of strategic reserves set aside to be used only when current amounts are depleted.
c. the amo unt of the reserves currently being used by humans. d. the amount of the reserves that has been identified and can be recovered at current prices with current technology.

10. The Middle Eastern countries have what percentage of the world’s proven petroleum reserves?
a. 50
b. 66
c. 87
d. 91
11. The nearly perfect energy source is:
a. coal.
b. natural gas.
c. petroleum.
d. taconite.
12. Which of the following occupations is classified as a secondary activity? a. carpenter
b. coal miner
c. electrical engineer
d. elementary school teacher
13. Shifting cultivation is not highly efficient in areas where: a. capital availability is low.
b. levels of technology are low.
c. roads, railways, and telephone lines traverse the areas.
d. the land is abundant in relation to the population.
14. Mediterranean agriculture is:
a. dependent upon large quantities of summer rainfall.
b. known for grapes, olives, oranges, and figs.
c. one of the least productive of the agricultural regions.
d. only found in Southern Europe and Northern Africa.
15. According to Von Thünen, when production plus transport costs equal the value of the commodity at the market, the farmer is at:
a. the economic margin of cultivation.
b. economic rent.
c. locational rent.
d. the rational margin.

51

16. The single most important event in swidden agriculture is the: a. burning and its control.
b. clearing of the area.
c. extermination of animals and pests.
d. felling of the second growth.
17. The economic decisions of a country are affected by all of the following factors except:
a. cultural considerations.
b. dependency ratios.
c. political policies.
d. technological development.
18. Almost 90% of the world’s annual fish supply comes from: a. inland waters.
b. the coast of Peru.
c. the continental shelf.
d. the open seas.
19. The production of most metallic minerals is affected by each of the following except:
a. distance to market.
b. quantity available.
c. richness of the ore.
d. weight of the ore.
20. Intensive subsistence agriculture is concentrated in:
a. areas with a Mediterranean climate.
b. major river valleys and deltas such as the Ganges.
c. the plains of the midwestern United States.
d. the Lapland areas of Scandinavia.
21. The Boserup thesis contends that:
a. the world will not be able to feed all of its inhabitants. b. rising population levels will intensify agricultural production even on lands that were once considered unsuitable.
c. the maintenance of soil fertility can only be accomplished through swidden agriculture.
d. the controlled management of water is detrimental to intensive subsistence agriculture.
22. The developing countries account for less than what percentage of industrial wood production?
a. 20
b. 50
c. 75
d. 90
23. Usable mineral deposits' distribution was determined by: a. the location of the population.
b. technological advances.
c. lack of conservation techniques.
d. geologic processes that concentrated deposits.

52

24. Primary commodities account for what percentage of growth in dollar value of international trade?
a. 25
b. 33
c. 50
d. 66
25. Large coal deposits are concentrated in the:
a. equatorial regions.
b. mid-latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere.
c. mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere.
d. subarctic regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

53

CHAPTER 9 – LIVELIHOOD AND ECONOMY:
FROM BLUE COLLAR TO GOLD COLLAR
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Describe the components of the space economy.
2. State and explain the principles of location.
3. Distinguish between material orientation and market orientation. 4. Discuss how transportation affects industrial location strategies. 5. Explain and compare the major theories of industrial location. 6. Discuss the impact on industrial location of agglomeration economies, just-in-time or flexible production, and comparative advantage.

7. Describe the pattern of manufacturing in Anglo America, Western, Central, or Eastern Europe, and Eastern Asia. 8. Explain the spatial pattern of the high tech sector of the global economy. 9. Discuss the growth and location of tertiary, quaternary, and quinary industries.

54

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____ Agglomeration Economies

a. costs that are relatively unaffected in
their amount or relative importance no
matter where an industry is located

____ Comparative Advantage

b. location near raw materials is chosen
because it is easier to transport a refined
product

____ Deglomeration

c. activities whose transport costs are
negligible for both production and
marketing

____ Fixed Costs

d. when the locational decision of one firm
is influenced by locations chosen by its
competitors

____ Footloose Industries

e. areas tend to specialize in the production
of items for which they have the greatest
relative advantage over other areas

____ Least-Cost Theory

f.

____ Locational Interdependence

g. the savings accrued from shared
facilities

____ Market Orientation

h. each new firm added to the agglomeration will lead to further development of infrastructure and linkages

____ Material Orientation

i. costs that show significant differences
from place to place in both the amount
and relative contribution to the total cost
of manufacturing

____ Multiplier Effect

j. the relocation of firms to more isolated
areas when costs of agglomeration
exceed benefits

____ Outsourcing

producing products or parts abroad in lower-cost manufacturing sites for domestic sale

k. location near consumers is chosen when
transportation charges for finished goods
are relatively high in proportion to the
total value of the good

____ Ubiquitous Industries

l. the optimum location of a manufacturing establishment that minimizes transport costs, labor costs, and agglomeration
costs

____ Variable Costs

m. industries that are inseparable from their
immediate markets and thus are widely distributed

55

2.

Using both the information provided in the chapter and the descriptions in A Comparison of Transport Media, indicate the preferred method of transport for the following products.

____ Bakery Products

a. water transport

____ Chemicals (solid or liquid)

b. railroads

____ Coal Slurry

c. highway carriers

____ Dairy Products

d. air transport

____ Diamonds

e. pipelines

____ Grain
____ Iron Ore
____ Natural Gas
____ Newly Manufactured Cars
____ Sophisticated Computer Equipment

56

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

What are the five controlling assumptions in Weber’s locational triangle theory? 1.

______________________________________________________________

2.

______________________________________________________________

3.

______________________________________________________________

4.

______________________________________________________________

5.

______________________________________________________________

2. Briefly define the following:
a.

b.

Line-Haul Costs

c.

3.

Terminal Costs

Tapering Principle

Identify the four reasons why the eas tern United States developed as the Anglo– American Manufacturing Belt.
1.

_______________________________________________________________

2.

_______________________________________________________________

3.

_______________________________________________________________

4.

_______________________________________________________________

57

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

Which of the following was not assumed by Weber in his least-cost theory? a. Agglomeration economies lead to higher transport and labor costs. b. Labor is immobile in location, but infinitely available.

c. Locations with high transport costs may be attractive because of a cheap labor supply. d. Transport costs were uniform by distance and weight in any direction.

2.

The largest single industrial area of Europe is centered on: a. London.
b. the Ruhr Valley.
c. the Saxony District.
d. the Scottish Lowlands.

3.

The substitution principle is part of which approach to industrial location? a. agglomeration
b. least-cost
c. locational interdependence
d. profit maximization

4.

By the mid 1990s, 80 % of the U.S. nonfarm employment was involved in which type of activity:
a. quaternary
b. quinary
c. secondary
d. tertiary

5.

Secondary activities are concerned with:
a. the extraction of natural resources.
b. information processing.
c. material processing and the production of goods.
d. retailing and wholesaling activities.

6.

The largest and most varied work force in the United States is found in: a. the Delaware Valley.
b. Megalopolis.
c. New York City.
d. the heart of the Anglo-Saxon Manufacturing Belt.

7.

The largest manufacturing district in Japan is:
a. Kitakyushu.
b. Kobe-Osaka.
c. Nagoya.
d. Tokyo.

8.

Outsourcing is closely related to:
a. comparative advantage.
b. Deglomeration.
c. market orientation.
d. material orientation.

58

9.

Which of the following is not a ma jor manufacturing region? a. Eastern Asia
b. Eastern North America
c. West and Central Europe
d. Western South America

10. The market control mechanism is measured by:
a. demand.
b. maximizing profit.
c. price.
d. supply.
11. Although it once had been the major manufacturing area in the country, by the mid– 1990s manufacturing employment in eastern North America had dropped to below what percentage?
a. 15
b. 25
c. 30
d. 60
12. The least expensive form of freight movement for long distances is: a. water transportation.
b. railway transportation.
c. highway transportation.
d. air transportation.
13. Which of the following is most relevant in the locational decision for the aluminum industry?
a. electrical power
b. large labor supply
c. location of raw materials
d. transportation costs
14. The industrial policies of Eastern Europe have created:
a. advanced high-tech regions.
b. extreme environmental problems.
c. highly efficient industrial districts.
d. strong unionized labor forces.
15. The lowest total costs for two vendors in a market are:
a. at opposite ends of the market.
b. at the midpoints of their halves of the market.
c. one at one end of the market, the other at the midpoint.
d. side-by-side clustered at the midpoint.
16. Jobs in which sector are not affected by the location of resources or market? a. quaternary
b. quinary
c. secondary
d. tertiary

59

17. Break of bulk points are sites where:
a. a carrier combines unprocessed commodities with finished goods. b. a transport carrier has made an intermediate stop before proceeding to the final destination.
c. goods have to be transferred from one type of carrier to another. d. movement is interrupted for processing or manufacturing en route. 18. The Industrial Revolution in England began with which industry? a. coal

b. food processing
c. iron and steel
d. textiles
19. Approximately what percentage of the world’s nonagricultural employment is controlled by transnational corporations?
a. 5
b. 10
c. 25
d. 50
20. The region of the world that is rapidly becoming the most productive industrial district is:
a. Eastern Asia.
b. Northeastern North America.
c. Paris.
d. Western United States and Mexico.
21. Locating a steel mill at Cleveland, Ohio was an example of: a. quaternary activities.
b. outsourcing.
c. minimization of the total cost of collecting all the raw materials at one point. d. avoiding incompatible industries such as textiles and footwear. 22. The textile industry has begun to shift production to China, Bangladesh, Mexico, and Thailand because of:

a. their proximity to major populations.
b. lower labor costs.
c. better overland transportation routes than those found in Taiwan and Hong Kong. d. political instability in Hong Kong.
23. Industries that are considered “footloose”:
a. are fly-by-night operations.
b. require multiple sources of raw materials.
c. are found predominantly in inner cities.
d. consider transport costs a negligible factor in production. 24. The concept of comparative advantage helps to explain:
a. high market demand for products.
b. regional specializations.
c. locating plants near raw material sources.
d. lower wage rates in the United States.

60

25. In planned Marxist economies such as in the former Soviet Union, the patterns of industrial development are geared to:
a. regional self-sufficiency.
b. the individual firm.
c. the location of the consumer market.
d. the location of the raw materials.

61

CHAPTER 10 – PATTERNS OF DEVELOPMENT AND CHANGE
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Explain why defining development can be problematic.
2. Discuss the various explanations for underdevelopment.
3. Explain the core-periphery argument.
4. List an explain economic variables that can be used to measure development. 5. Compare Rostow's model of economic advancement to other ideas. 6. List and explain noneconomic measures that can be used to guage development. 7. List and explain common aggregate measures of development and well-being. 8. Discuss the role of women in development using specific examples.

62

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms on the left with the corresponding characteristics on the right.

____ Circular and Cumulative
Causation

a. the extent to which the resources of
an area have been brought into full
productive use

____ Core-Periphery Model

b. the totality of tools and methods used
by a culture group in producing items
essential to its subsistence and comfort

____ Cultural Convergence

c. placing in less developed countries’ own territory and under their own control the productive plants and processes marking the more advanced countries

____ Development

d. a contrast in the range and productivity
of artifacts introduced at the core and
those employed at the periphery

____ Gross National Product (GNP)

e. a process that continues to polarize
development toward the prosperous
cores while depressing the periphery
areas

____ Technology

f. the total market value of goods and
and services produced within an
economy within a given period of time.

____ Technology Gap

g. sharp territorial contrasts exist in development between economic heartlands and outlying subordinate zones.

____ Technology Transfer

h. the increasing similarity in technologies
and ways of life among societies at the
same levels of development

63

2.

Using the information contained in the text , and the comparable statistics from Appendix B, classify the following countries as being either developed or less developed: a. Mexico

________________

b. South–Africa

________________

c. Australia

________________

d. Pakistan

________________

e. Hong Kong

________________

f. Uruguay

________________

g. Iceland

________________

h. Bolivia

________________

i. Kuwait

________________

j. Singapore

________________

64

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

In an attempt to devise meaningful names for the economic development status of countries, the contrasting terms North and South were developed. How do these terms apply to the economic development status of countries, and why are these somewhat more appropriate than other terms?

2.

The Brandt report offers a relatively simplistic, albeit inconclusive, set of conditions to explain the geographical distribution of underdevelopment across the globe. Enumerate the four generalizations.

1.
2.

______________________________________________________________

3.

______________________________________________________________

4.

3.

______________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

The primary economic measures used to distinguish developed from less developed countries are:
1. ____________________________ 2. ______________________________ 3. ____________________________ 4. ______________________________

65

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

Many less developed nations have difficulty reaching or maintaining which level in Rostow’s stages of development?
a. takeoff
b. preconditions for takeoff
c. drive to maturity
d. postindustrial

2.

The transition to better health in many countries of the developing world is at risk of being reversed by all but which of the following:
a. the spread of drug-resistant strains of previously eradicable diseases like malaria.
b. the withholding of medical care programs by the World Health Organization from countries with socialist governments.
c. the high and rising cost of modern medications.
d. civil unrest and wars that disrupt medical treatment and disease control programs.

3.

Labor force participation by women is primarily a function of: a. economic conditions.
b. urban conditions.
c. agricultural conditions.
d. cultural conditions.

4.

A country can move along the continuum from less developed to more developed by means of:
a. a technology gap.
b. cultural convergence.
c. technology transfer.
d. occupational structure.

5.

Populations that do not receive the required dietary energy supply on a daily basis are found primarily in:
a. the countries of the former Soviet Union.
b. the Middle East and North America.
c. Latin America.
d. Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.

6.

The increasing use of animal dung as a wood substitute for fuel in Africa and Asia has:
a.
b.
c.
d.

promoted the spread of diseases.
caused a loss of manure for soil enrichment.
masked the accurate measure of energy consumption.
created a new primary activity.

66

7.

Which of the following factors is not used to analyze a country’s level of development: a. size in area
b. per capita income
c. nutritional levels
d. energy consumption

8.

Regional income inequalities:
a. do not exist in developed countries.
b. are greater in developed countries than in less developed ones. c. are greater in less developed countries than in developed ones. d. do not exist in less developed countries.

9.

By the early 1990s, the countries of the South accounted for what percentage of Gross Global Product?
a. 10
b. 25
c. 33
d. 50

10. Both the World Bank and the United Nations recognize Africa as a special problem region for all of the following reasons except:
a. its rapid population decline.
b. the stagnation or decline in Africa’s per capita food production. c. its overall weakness in government and facilities systems. d. the prevalence of devastating civil wars.
11. With respect to the relationship between GNP and energy consumption: a. as GNP increases, energy consumption decreases.
b. there is no relationship between the two indicators.
c. each increases in direct relation to the other.
d. as energy consumption decreases, GNP increases.
12. What proportion of the developing countries’ population lives in poverty? a. one-fifth
b. one-third
c. one-half
d. two-thirds
13. Landlessness is a function of:
a. an imbalance between the size of an agricultural labor force and the amount of arable land.
b. an increase in urban population.
c. an imbalance in landlord-tenancy ratios.
d. the rising cost of real estate in some countries.
14. Industries that dominate in the less developed countries are classified as: a. primary.
b. quaternary.
c. secondary.
d. tertiary.

67

15. Composite measures of countries on the national development continuum have been criticized for being too strongly based on:
a. population statistics.
b. quality-of-life measures.
c. happiness scales.
d. economic and infrastructure measures.
16. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) includes all of the following factors except:
a. housing quality.
b. infant mortality.
c. life expectancy.
d. literacy.
17. With respect to the energy technology gap:
a. all countries are equally able to draw on advanced technology; some choose not to.
b. it has widened at an accelerating rate between the developed and less developed countries.
c. it is no longer an important factor in development.
d. none exists between the North and the South.
18. Since 1970, the rate and extent of women’s partic ipation in the labor force have: a. declined in most areas of the less developed world.
b. increased in nearly every world region.
c. not been measurable due to lack of reliable statistics.
d. remained about the same.
19. A disease that poses a threat of economic and political destabilization in some developing areas is:
a. AIDS.
b. malaria.
b. severe malnutrition.
c. typhoid.
20. According to the Brandt report, poverty and underdevelopment are associated with: a. desert regions.
b. north latitude country.
c. temperate climates.
d. tropical conditions.
21. Over the past 30 years, the collective economies of the developing countries grew at an average annual percentage rate of:
a. 2.1.
b. 3.5.
c. 5.
d. 7.2.
22. When the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank introduced the purchasing power parity (PPP) measure in 1993, the relative importance of the Third World:
a. declined significantly.
b. remained the same.
c. increased marginally.
d. doubled.

68

23. What proportion of the world’s population does not receive sufficient food energy? a. one-fifth.
b. one-seventh.
c. one-half.
d. two-thirds.
24. The relationship between economic and social measures of development is: a. direct and proportional.
b. indirect and proportional.
c. direct and technological.
d. indirect and technological.
25. Worldwide, how many people lack the simple sanitary facilities essential to health? a. 1 billion.
b. 1.3 billion.
c. 2 billion.
d. 10 billion.

69

CHAPTER 11 – URBAN SYSTEMS AND URBAN STRUCTURES

Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Summarize the history of urban growth around the world and describe the current pattern of the world's largest cities.
2. Describe the origins of human settlements.
3. Explain the differences among the terms city, town, suburb, urbanized area, and metropolitan area. 4. Describe the functions of cities and explain the difference between basic and nonbasic sectors of a city's economy. 5. Distinguish between countries that follow the rank-size rule and those that are dominated by a primate city. 6. Explain Central Place Theory and discuss its importance.

7. Discuss how land use is determined within the city.
8. Compare and contrast the basic models of urban land use structure. 9. Summarize and discuss surbanization in the United States. 10. Explain and discuss the problems of central cities.
11. Compare and contrast cities in the developed and developing worlds.

70

Matching Questions
1.

Match the terms on the left with the definitions on the right.

____ Central City

____ City

a. continuously built-up landscapes defined by
buildings and population densities with no
reference to political boundaries
b. the residential renovation and rehabilitation of deteriorated portions of the inner city by private middle- and upper-income groups replacing low-income populations

____ Conurbation

c. a city that has a population much greater
than twice the population of the second
largest city

____ Gentrification

d. nucleated settlement, multifunctional in
character, including a central business district
(CBD), residential and nonresidential land uses

____ Metropolitan Area

e. extensive regions of continuous urbanization made up of multiple centers

____ Network City

f. areas outside a city that are still affected by it

____ Primate City

g. a large-scale functional entity, perhaps containing several urban areas, discontinuously built up, but operating as an integrated
economic unit

____ Urban Influence Zones

h. that part of the urban area contained within
the official boundaries of the main city around
which suburbs develop

____ Urbanized Area

i. evolves when two or more previously
independent but complementary nearby cities
strive to cooperate by linking together with highspeed transportation corridors and communications infrastructure

71

2.

Match the following characteristics with one of the following urban theories or models.
Central Place Theory
Sector Model
a.

Economic Base Theory
Multiple Nuclei Model

Concentric Zones Model
Urban Hierarchy

urban land use pattern is based upon separate expanding
clusters of contrasting activities
______________

b. zone in transition characterized by deteriorating
residential structures

______________

c. product thresholds

______________

d. filtering-down process as older areas are abandoned by
outward movement

______________

e. functional specialization permits classification of cities into categories

______________

f. associated with Walter Christaller

______________

g. assumes continuous expansion of inner zones at the
expense of the next outer zone

______________

h. workers are engaged in “export” activities

______________

i. smaller cities outnumber larger cities

______________

j. hexagonal market areas

______________

k. large cities develop by peripheral spread, not from one
but from several nodes of growth

______________

l. expansion patterns grow out from the center of the city
along major arterial streets

______________

m.

the few high-level metropolitan areas provide specialized
functions for larger regions, while the smaller cities
serve smaller regions
______________

72

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

Name the four recurring themes and regularities evident in all cities. 1.
2.

_______________________________________________________________

3.

_______________________________________________________________

4.

2.

_______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________

Employing the three models of urban land use structure (concentric zone, sector, multiple nuclei) describe how Social Status, Family Status, and Ethnicity are spatially distributed throughout the typical North American city. Social Status _______________________________________________________ Family Status ______________________________________________________ Ethnicity __________________________________________________________

3.

What are the three objectives that were designed to shape and control both new and older settlements in Eastern European (socialist) cities? 1.

_______________________________________________________________

2.

_______________________________________________________________

3.

_______________________________________________________________

73

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

The least accessible locations within a city tend to be occupied by which land use? a. commercial
b. industrial
c. residential
d. transportation

2.

The urbanization process is resulting in which region having the largest cities of the world?
a. Asia and Africa
b. Europe
c. Latin America
d. North America

3.

Each of the following is a characteristic of women’s urban social space except: a. women are more numerous in large central cities than are men. b. women constitute the bulk of the urban poor because “women’s jobs” are dominated by lower wage rates, part-time employment, and lack of job security.

c. women rely more heavily on public transportation than do men. d. women tend to find employment in occupations that are more geographically concentrated than men’s occupations. Which of the following statements concerning the multiplier effect is correct? a. It is based on the city’s fertility rates.

b. It is only useful in larger metropolitan centers.
c. It only increases; it does not decrease.
d. The size of the effect is determined by the city’s basic/nonbasic ratio.

4.

5.

All of the following are common features of cities in the developing world except: a. few of the large cities have modern centers of commerce.
b. all have experienced massive in-migrations from rural areas. c. most are ringed by vast squatter settlements.
d. all have populations greater than their formal functions and employment bases can support.

6.

Central places are so named because they:
a. are located in the center of a rural area.
b. developed on an isotropic plain.
c. serve as nodal points for the distribution of goods and services to surrounding nonurban areas. d. were first described by Walter Christaller.

7.

In the typical North American city, population densities are highest: a. at the center.
b. in the outer fringe area.
c. in the suburbs.
d. just outside the central core of the city.

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8.

According to the rank-size rule, the third-ranked settlement will be what ratio to the size of the first-ranked settlement?
a. 1/3
b. 1/100
c. 1/1000
d. 3/1

9.

Which of the following is not considered a major reason for the increase in America’s homeless population?
a. government policies leading to a shortage of affordable housing b. increases in soup kitchens, food banks, and shelters run by nonprofit groups c. increases in job loss, divorce, domestic violence, and incapacitating illnesses d. reduced funding for mental hospitals, resulting in more formerly institutionalized people out on the street

10. Which of the following statements concerning zoning is not correct? a. It is designed to minimize land use incompatibilities.
b. It is designed to segregate different populations from each other. c. It is designed to prevent the emergence of slums.
d. It is designed to reduce market-induced pressures for land use change. 11. Urbanization emerges out of rural settlement patterns when: a. communities become self-contained.
b. houses become dispersed along main roads.
c. the heights of buildings increase.
d. trade develops between two or more settlements.
12. In which world region would a primate city hierarchy most likely be found? a. Africa
b. Australia
c. Europe
d. North America
13. Which of the following is not classified as a major urban region? a. Eastern Europe
b. North America
c. South Asia
d. Western Europe
14. In a city with a basic/nonbasic ratio of 1:2.5, an increase of 10,000 basic sector jobs would generate how many new total employees in the city? a. 4,000
b. 10,000
c. 25,000
d. 35,000
15. The urban differences among European countries are based upon: a. the common heritage of medieval origins.
b. the length of time the country has been a nation.
c. the many different languages.
d. wartime destruction.

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16. According to urban hierarchy theory, in any country one should receive: a. few megalopolises.
b. few small towns.
c. many megalopolises.
d. the same number of small towns and megalopolises.
17. At the beginning of this century only 13 metropolitan areas exceeded 1 million in population. By 1990, that figure exceeded:
a. 280.
b. 300.
c. 340.
d. 400.
18. Which of the following statements best describes the site of a city? a. Chicago is approximately 850 miles fro m New York City.
b. Des Moines, Iowa, is located in the heart of the Corn Belt. c. Pittsburgh is located at the confluence of the Ohio, Allegheny, and Monongahela Rivers.
d. Seattle is located in the Pacific Northwest.
19. Of the following urban structures, which is the largest in areal extent? a. city
b. metropolitan area
c. town
d. urbanized area
20. A country whose urban system approximates rank-size ordering is: a. Egypt.
b. Nairobi.
c. South Korea.
d. United States.
21. The characteristic that most distinguishes metropolises in developing countries from those in Western nations is the:
a. number of apartment buildings.
b. downtown cores.
c. ethnic enclaves.
d. transportation networks.
22. The greatest proportion of black segregation in the United States is found in the metropolitan areas of the: a. South and West.
b. Northwest and Northeast.
c. Midwest and Northeast.
d. Southeast and Midwest.
23. A good indicator of social status is:
a. commuting distance to the CBD.
b. ethnic composition.
c. number of mass transit versus automobile users.
d. number of persons per room per housing unit.

76

24. “A city which is compact, with relatively high buildings and population densities, and a sharp break between urban and rural land uses on the periphery” describes the: a. Asian city.
b. East European city.
c. North American city.
d. West European city.
25. The “traditional bazaar city” is characteristic of cities in which world region? a. Western Europe
b. South Asia
c. Africa
d. Latin America

77

CHAPTER 12 – THE POLITICAL ORDERING OF SPACE
Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Define and give examples of nations, states, and nation-states. 2. Briefly outline the evolution of the modern state.
3. Explain the importance of size, shape, and location for states. 4. Describe different kinds of boundaries and discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each. 5. Give examples of centripetal and centrifugal forces that act on states. 6. Describe basic theories of geopolitics.

7. Define supranationalism and give several real-world examples. 8. Define and explain the Law of the Sea.
9. Discuss the challenges of redistricting in the United States and problems of political fragmentation.

78

Matching Questions
1.

Match the following terms with their correct definitions.

____ Multinational State

a. a nation that is not dominant in any state

____ Nation

b. a single nation that is dispersed across and is
predominant in two or more states

____ Nation-State

c. an independent political unit occupying a
defined, permanently populated territory
with full sovereign control

____ Part-Nation State

d. a group of people with a common culture
occupying a particular territory

____ State

____ Stateless Nation

2.

e. a state whose territory is identical to that
occupied by a nation of people
f. a state that contains more than one nation, and
no single ethnic group dominates the population

Match the boundary types with their definitions.

____ Antecedent Boundary

a. an artificial boundary usually delimited by a
parallel of latitude or a meridian of longitude

____ Consequent Boundary

b. an ill-defined and fluctuating area marking
the effective end of a state’s authority

____ Frontier Zone

c. boundaries drawn after the development of
the cultural landscape

____ Geometric Boundary

d. drawing of voting district boundaries so as
to unfairly favor one political party over another

____ Gerrymandering

e. a boundary drawn across an area before the
area is well populated

____ Subsequent Boundary

f. a boundary forced upon existing cultural
landscapes, a country, or a people by a
conquering or colonizing power

____ Superimposed Boundary

g. a boundary drawn to accommodate existing
religious, ethnic, linguistic, or economic
differences between countries

79

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

Identify four physical factors that affect the government’s role within a country. Give one advantage and one disadvantage of each.
1.

2.

_____________________________________________________________

3.

_____________________________________________________________

4.

2.

_____________________________________________________________

______________________________________________________________

Explain the two preconditions necessary to all regional autonomist movements as well as the two characteristics common to many separatist movements. 1.

2.

_____________________________________________________________

3.

_____________________________________________________________

4.

3.

_____________________________________________________________

_____________________________________________________________

Name and describe two techniques used to achieve stacked gerrymandering... 1.

_____________________________________________________________

2.

_____________________________________________________________

...and give two reasons why gerrymandering may not be automatically successful. 1.

_____________________________________________________________

2.

_____________________________________________________________

80

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

With respect to regional alliances:
a. in the developing world they tend to be formed between countries that share the same former colonial master.
b. their formation often stimulates the creation of alliances left out of another alliance.
c. there is no general tendency for them to be contiguous to each other. d. they almost always occur among countries with similar economies.

2.

The 49th Parallel, separating Canada from the United States across much of Western North America, is classified as which type of boundary? a. geometric
b. ethnographic
c. natural
d. subsequent

3.

Gerrymandering is:
a. a form of reapportionment occasioned by shifts in population. b. a form of drawing voting district boundaries that favors a political party.
c. the cessation of a segregated school system.
d. the formation of unified government services.

4.

Among the social institutions that promote nationalism, the three most important are: a. schools, the family, and political parties.
b. schools, the military, and state religion.
c. the family, athletics, and political parties.
d. the military, state religion, and athletics.

5.

The fact that the State of Illinois has over 6,000 local government units, ranging from counties to special-purpose sewer districts, is an example of: a. gerrymandering.
b. metro government.
c. political fragmentation.
d. proportional representation.

6.

The two preconditions that are common to all regional autonomist movements are:
a. national and peripheral location.
b. social and economic inequality, and nationality.
c. territory and nationality.
d. territory and peripheral location.

7.

An example of a part-nation state is the:
a. Arab nation.
b. Basque nation.
c. Kurds.
d. Ukrainians.

81

8.

Exclusive economic zones (EEZ) recognized under the Law of the Sea Convention extend outward from coasts by up to:
a. 22 kilometers.
b. 44 kilometers.
c. 200 kilometers.
d. 370 kilometers.

9.

The world’s most powerful and far-reaching economic alliance is the: a. Council of Mutual Economic Assistance.
b. European Union.
c. European Free Trade Association.
d. South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation.

10. An important reason for the formation of unified governments is to: a. collect a larger amount of tax revenues.
b. make it appear as though a city is larger than it really is. c. make school districts smaller.
d. reduce the duplication of many services provided by local governments. 11. The most controversial provision of the Law of the Sea Convention has been: a. overlapping claims on the continental shelf resulting from the 200mile EEZ. b. seabed mining beyond the limits of national jurisdiction. c. the maximum extent of territorial waters from a coastline. d. the right of passage through international straits.

12. National anthems are an example of:
a. autonomy.
b. ethnography.
c. gerrymandering.
d. iconography.
13. Which of the following associations regarding ethnic separation is not correct? a. Basques – Spain
b. Bretons – France
c. Palestinians – Israel
d. Sikhs – China
14. The 1990 Iraqi invasion of Kuwait resulted in part from what type of boundary dispute?
a. military
b. positional
c. resource
d. territorial
15. Which of the following would be considered a forward thrust capital city? a. Brasilia
b. Canberra
c. Paris
d. Washington, D.C.
16. Countries comprised mostly or exclusively of islands are classified as: a. compact.
b. elongated.
c. fragmented.
d. prorupt.

82

17. Singapore’s primary resource is its:
a. absolute location.
b. relative location.
c. shape.
d. size.
18. The least efficient shape for the management of a state is: a. compact.
b. elongated.
c. fragmented.
d. prorupt.
19. The primary objective of local zoning ordinances in municipalities is to: a. control the uses to which land may be put.
b. eliminate political fragmentation.
c. foster cooperation among many governmental units in small areas. d. prevent the proliferation of special-purpose governmental districts. 20. All of the following are considered stateless nations except: a. Italians.

b. Basques.
c. Kurds.
d. Palestinians.
21. When a capital city is spatially associated with its core region, it is called a: a. federal state.
b. functioning core.
c. primate city.
d. unitary state.
22. The geopolitical theory that stressed the strategic advantages of land over sea power is known as the:
a. domino theory.
b. rimland theory.
c. lebensraum theory.
d. heartland theory.
23. The establishment of the original three-mile limit of sovereignty from a nation’s coastline permitted states to do all of the following except: a. enforce quarantines and customs regulations.
b. protect coastal fisheries.
c. effectively claim neutrality during other people’s wars. d. prevent others from exercising their right of innocent passage. 24. Preservation of the tax base and retention of expansion room for the central city are the driving forces behind:

a. unified government.
b. zoning ordinances.
c. predevelopment annexation.
d. cumulative voting.

83

25. Which of the following is not considered to be a centripetal force in preserving state cohesiveness?
a. United Nations membership
b. nationalism
c. systems of transportation and communication
d. effective organization and administration of government

84

CHAPTER 13 – HUMAN IMPACTS ON NATURAL SYSTEMS:
GEOGRAPHIC OUTLOOKS ON GLOBAL CONCERNS

Objectives
After reading and studying this chapter you should be able to: 1. Define environment, biome, and ecosystem.
2. Discuss the processes related to global warming.
3. Explain how acid rain is formed.
4. Explain the main causes of deforestation, desertification, and soil erosion worldwide. 5. Diagram and explain the hydrologic cycle and discuss its relationship to water supply and water quality issues. 6. Discuss some of the problems with dealing with solid and toxic wastes. 7. Discuss the pros and cons of the Yucca Mountain plan.

85

Matching Questions
1.

Match each part of the natural system on the left with its characteristic on the right.

____ Atmosphere

a. self-contained, self-regulating, and interacting communities adapted to local combinations of climate, topography,
soil, and drainage conditions

____ Biomes

b. the 4 to 16 miles of air above the earth’s
surface

____ Biosphere

c. the introduction of wastes into the
atmosphere that cannot be disposed of
by natural recycling processes

____ Ecosystems

d. the uppermost solid layer of the Earth

____ Environment

e. major communities of plants and animals
occupying extensive areas of the earth’s
surface.

____ Environmental Pollution

f. the thin film of air, water, and earth in
which we live

____ Hydrosphere

g. the surface and subsurface waters in
oceans, rivers, ice, glaciers, and
groundwater

____ Lithosphere

h. the totality of things that in any way
affect an organism

86

2.

Match the conditions on the right with the environmental events on the left.

____ Acid Rain

a. slow, continuous warming of the
atmosphere resulting from the burning of
fossil fuels

____ Deforestation

b. materials that can cause death or serious
injury to humans and animals

____ Desertification

c. sulfuric acid and nitrogen oxides formed
by the burning of fossil fuels combined
with atmospheric conditions

____ Greenhouse Effect

d. the indiscriminate form of massive clearing of the tropical rain forests conducted in order to expand agricultural, mining,
or urban activities

____ Hazardous Wastes

e. the reduction of the thin atmospheric
layer caused in part by pollution from
the chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)

____ Icebox Effect

f. all wastes that pose an immediate or
long-term human health risk or
endanger the environment

____ Ozone Depletion

g. expansion of arid areas resulting from
deforestation, overgrazing, and overpopulation

____ Soil Erosion

h. the decrease in solar energy received
at the earth’s surface caused by clouds
as well as solid and liquid particles
(aerosols) that radiate the energy
back into space

____ Toxic Wastes

i. the process of removal of soil particles
from the ecosystem, usually by wind or
running water; this process is accelerated when vegetation is cleared

87

Fill In the Blanks
Complete the following by supplying the required answers.
1.

Outline the steps involved in the process of desertification.

2.

What are the three “global” influences on forest depletion? 1.

__________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________

3.

__________________________________________________________________

3. Regional water supplies are a function of the amount of precipitation received by an area and:
1.

__________________________________________________________________

2.

__________________________________________________________________

3. __________________________________________________________________

88

Multiple Choice Questions
Select the most correct answer from the alternatives given.
1.

The single most critical concern regarding the disposal of radioactive wastes is: a. burying wastes on land has led to contamination via leaks from the barrels. b. dumping wastes at sea has resulted in the contamination of the oceans. c. injecting the wastes into deep wells can trigger earthquakes. d. no satisfactory method of disposal has yet been devised.

2.

Which of the following does not place growing demands on water supplies? a. agriculture
b. hydrologic cycle
c. industrialization
d. urbanization

3.

One possible effect of global warming would be:
a. an increase in the amount of fresh water throughout the globe. b. an increase in volcanic activity.
c. coastal wetlands would be submerged.
d. the continental interiors of middle latitudes would receive greater precipitation.

4.

The “quiet crisis” is the term given to the:
a. depletion of agricultural soil through erosion.
b. disposal of sanitary wastes.
c. dumping of toxic wastes in approved dumpsites.
d. increasing number of earthquakes occurring across the globe.

5.

The icebox effect may be created by:
a. glaciers.
b. thunderstorms.
c. volcanoes.
d. water vapor.

6.

The continent at the greatest risk of desertification is:
a. Africa.
b. Asia.
c. North America.
d. South America.

7.

Which activity contributes to water pollution more than any other throughout the world?
a. agriculture
b. hydroelectric power generation
c. industry
d. urbanization

89

8.

Depletion of the earth’s ozone layer is expected to lead to all of the following consequences except:
a. increases in the incidence of skin cancer.
b. increases in human vulnerability to a variety of infectious diseases. c. an increase in sea temperatures causing melting of the polar ice caps. d. threats to the existence of the microscopic plankton at the base of the marine food chain.

9.

With respect to the earth as a system, the hydrosphere is concerned with: a. air.
b. rocks.
c. vegetation.
d. water.

10. Acid rain is primarily a problem of:
a. developed nations.
b. developing nations.
c. primate cities.
d. urban areas.
11. The international shipping of hazardous wastes is:
a. decreasing.
b. increasing.
c. nonexistent.
d. prohibited.
12. The greenhouse effect is related most closely to:
a. increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide.
b. the nutrient enrichment of water.
c. the conversion of sulfur dioxides into sulfuric acid in the atmosphere. d. the return of heated water to the environment.
13. The agricultural practice of terracing:
a. allows soil to renew its fertility.
b. decreases soil erosion.
c. increases soil erosion.
d. takes large amounts of land out of agricultural production. 14. Acid rain contamination in New England is blamed primarily on: a. increased automobile emissions from states like California. b. midwestern coal-burning power stations and industries.

c. global warming.
d. recent major volcanic eruptions in Asia.
15. Fresh water accounts for approximately what percentage of total water available? a. less than 1
b. 10
c. 30
d. 56

90

16. Acid rain has been linked to all of the following except: a. a decline in fish populations in thousands of lakes and streams. b. reduced rates of forest growth.
c. respiratory diseases and cancers in humans.
d. the depletion of the earth’s ozone layer.
17. What percentage of municipal solid waste is disposed of in landfills? a. 10
b. 30
c. 60
d. 75
18. An example of a high-level hazardous waste is:
a. detergent wastes.
b. organic solvents.
c. radio-pharmaceutical waste.
d. spent nuclear power reactor fuel.
19. Which of the following statements about solid waste is not correct? a. Every method for disposing of such waste has an impact on the environment. b. In North America, the average person produces six pounds of waste per day. c. Modern cultures differ from older ones only by the volume and character of their wastes.

d. Much municipal waste is hazardous because it contains toxic chemicals. 20. Acid rain has the greatest potential for damage to surface water in the United States in: a. New England.
b. the Dakotas.
c. the desert Southwest.
d. the Lower Great Lakes.
21. All of the following statements concerning global warming are true except: a. from 1880 to 1980 the mean global temperature rose about 1º F. b. carbon dioxide in the atmosphere now totals 150% of its pre-Industrial Revolution levels. c. the seven warmest years between 1880 and 1991 occurred before 1945. d. global temperatures will continue to rise even if carbon dioxide amounts were stabilized at today’s levels.

22. Global warming and climatic change would most adversely affect: a. high-latitude areas such as Russia, Scandinavia, and Canada. b. industrialized countries with diversified economies.
c. developing countries highly dependent on agriculture.
d. both polar regions of the Earth.
23. The removal of tropical forests is related to all of the following global concerns except: a. their role in maintaining the oxygen and carbon balance of the earth. b. their ability to regulate surface and air temperatures, moisture content, and reflectivity.

c. their contribution to the biological diversity of the planet. d. their ability to absorb the chemicals that contribute to depletion of the ozone layer.

91

24. The combination of decreasing yields, increased stream sediment loads, and downstream deposition of silt on a global basis is evidence of: a. global warming.
b. soil erosion.
c. desertification.
d. tropical deforestation.
25. On a global basis, the areas with the highest moisture deficits are: a. southwestern United States, Southeast Asia, and tropical Africa. b. North Africa, the Middle East, and central China.
c. North Africa, the Middle East, Australia, and the southwestern United States. d. the Middle East, eastern Russia, the Arctic, and Australia

92

ANSWER SECTION
Matching Questions
Chapter 1
1.

Absolute Direction – a
Absolute Distance –f
Absolute Location – e
Relative Distance – b
Relative Direction – i
Relative Location – g
Scale – c
Site – d
Situation – h

2. a. functional
b. formal
c. perceptual
d. formal
e. functional
f. functional
g. functional
h. perceptual
i. formal

Chapter 2
1.

Culture – g
Culture Traits – i
Culture Complex – a
Culture Region – f
Culture Realm – h
Culture Hearth – d
Cultural Integration – c
Cultural Lag – b
Cultural Landscape – e

2. Absorbing Barrier – c
Permeable Barrier – a
Contagious Diffusion – f
Expansion Diffusion – h
Hierarchical Diffusion – g
Relocation Diffusion – e
Innovation – d
Independent Innovation – b

Chapter 3
1.

Activity Space – e
Personal Communication Field – g
Complementarity – c
Direction Bias – a
Distance Decay – b
Intervening Opportunity – h
Space-Time Prism – f
Territoriality – d
Transferability – i

2. Channelized Migration – c
Migration Field – g
Place Utility – d
Pull Factor – e
Push Factor – f
Counter Migration – a
Step Migration – b

Chapter 4
1.

Cohort – h
Crude Birth Rate –d
Dependency Ratio – j
Doubling Time – f
Infant Mortality Ratio – i
Mortality Rate – g
Natural Increase – k
Population Pyramid – a
Rates – c

2.

Austria – c
China – b
Colombia – a
Denmark – c
Ghana – a
Pakistan – a
Somalia – a
South Korea – b
United States – b

93

Total Fertility Rate – b
Zero Population Growth – e

Chapter 5
1.

Value System – c
Polytheism – d
Universalizing Religion – a
Animism – f
Shamanism – b
Tribal Religion – h
Secularism – e
Syncretism – g

2.

Language – d
Language Family – c
Protolanguage – c
Language Spread – a
Speech Community – f
Standard Language – j
Dialects – b
Vernacular – i
Lingua Franca – g
Toponyms – h

2.

Charter Group – d
Ethnic Islands – i
Cluster Migration – f
Chain Migration – e
Segregation – b
Ethnic Provinces – g
Colonies – h
Ethnic Enclave – a
Ghetto – c

2.

Central Hall House – b
Shotgun House – c
Grenier House – c
Huguenot-Plan House – c
Charleston Single House – a
Classic I House – d
Four-Over-Four House – f
Gable Front House – e
Saltbox House – e
Norman Cottage – g

2.

a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.

Chapter 6
1.

Ethnicity – c
Ethnocentrism – f
Ethnic Group – b
Assimilation – c
Adaptation – a
Host Society – d
Amalgamation – h
Acculturation – g

Chapter 7
1.

Folk Culture – c
Material Culture – f
Nonmaterial Culture – h
Folk Customs – a
Vernacular House Styles – i
Geophagy – d
Folklore – b
Folkways – g
Popular Culture – e

Chapter 8
1.

Green Revolution - a
Commercial Economy – b
Extensive Commercial Agriculture – o
Intensive Commercial Agriculture – d
Extensive Subsistence Agriculture – k
Intensive Subsistence Agriculture – c
Maximum Sustainable Yield – i
Shifting Cultivation – n
Subsistence Economy – g

secondary
tertiary
primary
quaternary
secondary
primary
tertiary
quaternary
quaternary

94

Nomadic Herding – j
Planned Economy – e
Resource – f
Renewable Resource – m
Nonrenewable Resources – l
Tragedy of the Commons – h

j. tertiary
k. quinary
l. tertiary

Chapter 9
1.

Agglomeration Economics – g
Comparative Advantage – e
Deglomeration – j
Fixed Costs – a
Footloose Industries – c
Least-Cost Theory – l
Locational Interdependence – d
Market Orientation – k
Material Orientation – b
Multiplier Effect – h
Outsourcing – f
Ubiquitous Industries – m
Variable Costs – i

2. Bakery Products – c
Chemicals (solid or liquid) – b
Coal Slurry – e
Dairy Products – c
Diamonds – d
Grain – a
Iron Ore – a
Natural Gas – e
Newly Manufactured Cars – b
Sophisticated Computer Equipment – d

Chapter 10
1.

Circular and Cumulative Causation – e
Core-Periphery Model – g
Cultural Convergence – h
Development – a
Gross National Product (GNP) – f
Technology – b
Technology Gap – d
Technology Transfer – c

2. a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
i.
j.

less developed
less developed
developed
less developed
developed
developed
developed
less developed
developed
developed

Chapter 11
1.

Central City – h
City – d
Conurbation – e
Gentrification – b
Metropolitan Area – g
Network City – i
Primate City – c
Urban Influence Zones – f
Urbanized Area – a

2. a. multiple nuclei
b. concentric zone
c. central place theory
d. sector model
e. economic base
f. central place theory
g. concentric zone
h. economic base
i. urban hierarchy
j. central place theory
k. multiple nuclei
l. sector model
m. urban hierarchy

95

Chapter 12
1.

Perforated State – c
Nation – e
State – f
Nation-State – b
Nationalism – a
Subsequent – g
Consequent – h
Exclave – d
Prorupt States – j
Relict Boundary – I

2.

Antecedent Boundary - e
Consequent Boundary - g
Frontier Zone - b
Geometric Boundary - a
Gerrymandering - d
Subsequent Boundary - c
Superimposed Boundary - f

Chapter 13
1.

Atmosphere – b
Biomes – e
Biosphere – f
Ecosystems – a
Environment – h
Environmental Pollution – c
Hydrosphere – g
Lithosphere – d

2. Acid Rain – c
Deforestation – d
Desertification – g
Greenhouse Effect –a
Hazardous Wastes –f
Icebox Effect – h
Ozone Depletion – e
Soil Erosion – i
Toxic Wastes – b

96

Fill In the Blanks
Chapter 1

Chapter 2
1.

2

3.

Paleolithic (Old Stone Age) Period when small scattered groups began to develop regional variations in culture and spread to all continents except Antarctica Mesolithic (11,000 – 5,000) Marked the transition from food collection to food production. Domestication of plants and animals

Neolithic (New Stone Age) Creation of advanced tools and technologies to deal with the needs of an agricultural, sedentary society
1. focus on plant species capable of providing large quantities of storable calories or protein 2. an already well-fed population
3. sedentary residence to protect territory from predators
4. development of labor specializations
Environmental Determinism holds that the physical environment exclusively shapes humans, their actions and their thoughts, although the environment does often place certain limitations on the human use of territory. Possibilism is the viewpoint that people, not environments, are the dynamic forces of cultural development.

Chapter 3
1.

Complementarity – Push-pull factors such as better opportunities for jobs, housing or services often induce people to change residence, sometimes over long dis tances. Transferability – Emotional and financial costs of a residential relocation are important in the decision to migrate.

Intervening Opportunity – Groups for whom push factors are more determining than specific locational pull considerations may limit their migration distance in response to immediate opportunities encountered.

2.

a.

Push – no local job or higher education opportunities, get away from family Pull – better known job or educational opportunities, climate, or amenities b. Push – house too small, to escape perceived unsafe neighborhoods, no day-care facilities Pull – perceived better schools, larger homes for growing families, safer neighborhoods c. Push – house too large and expensive, no children in local area, fewer services for elderly, unfavorable climate

Pull – concentration of other retirees, favorable year-round climate, amenities and services for retirees

3. 1. Stage in the Life Course
2. Mobility
3. Opportunities

Example: Children have a more restricted activity space than adults. Example: Automobile owners have a larger activity space than pedestrians.
Example: In subsistence economies, daily functions are satisfied at home.

Chapter 4
1.

Thomas Malthus, an English demographer, clergyman, and economist, stated that unchecked populations increase geometrically while food production increases only arithmetically. Growth of populations is only limited by the means of subsistence and will continue to increase with increases in such means unless

97

prevented by powerful checks. Populations may be kept in balance and their reproductive capacity inhibited by either private (moral restraint, celibacy, chastity) o r destructive (war, poverty, pestilence, famine) checks. The Neo-Malthusians contended that in human populations, fertility behavior is conditioned by social determinants, not solely biological capacities. The world population has grown to 5.7 billion without the disasters predicted by Malthus. Although Malthus’ theories hold true for some animal populations, in transferring these to the human population, Malthus failed to recognize the importance of technology in raising the carrying capacity of the earth.

2.

1.
2.
3.
4.

1. loses portion of its young childbearing population
2. suffers distortion in its young adult sex ratios
3. recorded statistical aging of its population

Receiving Country

3.

Origin Country

1. experiences an increase in births
2. reduction in the average age
3. modifications of the existing ethnic mix

The majority of the global population (about 90%) lives north of the equator. The majority of the global population (about 90%) lives on less than 20% of the land area. People congregate in lowland areas (lower elevation).

About two-thirds of the world’s population lives within 300 miles of the ocean.

Chapter 5
1.

Expansion – Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Arabic. Religion: Islam, Christianity, Hinduism Relocation – Languages: English, Bantu, Latin. Religion: Christianity, Judaism, Islam Hierarchical – Languages : French, Dutch, Portuguese, English. Religion: Christianity

2.

A pidgin is an amalgamation of languages. A creole is a language evolved from a pidgin to become a distinctive language.

3.

Christianity is a universalizing religion because it claims applicability to all humans and seeks to transmit its beliefs through missionary work and conversion. Hinduism is an ethnic religion because it has a strong territorial (India) and cultural group (Hindu) identification.

One becomes a Hindu by birth or adoption of its complex lifestyle, not by a simple declaration of faith. Hindus do not proselytize and they form distinctive closed communities.

Chapter 6
1.

Behavioral assimilation implies integration into a common cultural life through shared experience, language, intermarriage, and sense of history, while structural assimilation refers to fusion of immigrant ethnics with the groups, social systems, and occupations of the host society.

2.

Defense – Provides security from the hostility of antagonistic social groups. Reduces physical immigrant isolation and exposure by physical association with a limited area. Support – Serves as a halfway station and as a place of initiation and indoctrination and provides supporting institutions to ease the transition.

Preservation – Prevents total absorption into charter society and serves to maintain customs and associations essential to group conservation.
Attack – Allows the search for political representation that protects group interests at all levels of government.

98

3.

1. Shared ancestry and cultural heritage
2. Retention of a set of distinctive traditions
3. Maintenance of in-group interactions and relationships

Chapter 7
1.

2.

Folk Culture – material and nonmaterial aspects of daily life preserved by smaller groups isolated from the mainstream currents of the larger society around them. Ethnic Groups – possess a distinctive characterizing heritage and traditions that contribute to the national cultural mix.

Popular Culture – provides a leveling, unifying, and liberating coloration to the mix, reducing differences between formerly distinctive groups, though not totally eradicating them.

1. Food
4. Medicine and Cures

2. Drink
5. Folklore

3. Music

3.Whereas folk or ethnic culture stress individuality, small-group distinctiveness and tradition, popular culture implies the mass of people, primarily urban-based, constantly adopting, conforming to and abandoning changing modes of behavior and fads of material and nonmaterial culture.

Chapter 8
1.

Developing countries rely heavily on the export of primary commodities, thus creating a dependency that makes them vulnerable to price fluctuations, creates difficulties in economic planning and debt repayment, and depletes natural capital.

2.

1. The upper middle latitudes of the northern hemisphere
2. Equatorial zones of South and Central America, Central Africa, and Southeast Asia.

3. Positive:

Negative:

1. increases in yields
2. helped alleviate famine and food shortages
3. expanded food production
1. demands high inputs of costly seeds, mechanization, etc.
2. displaces traditional and subsistence agriculture
3. reduces food security, nutritional diversity, and balance of multiple -crop, intensive gardening

Chapter 9
1.

1. A uniform landscape or isotropic plain.
2. Manufacturing involves a single product to be shipped to a single market whose location is known.
3. Inputs involve raw materials from more than one known source. 4. Labor is infinitely available but immobile in location.
5. Transport routes are not fixed, but connect origin and destination by the shortest path, and costs reflect distance and weight of product.

2.

a. Terminal Costs – the fixed, overhead costs of the carrier, e.g., loading and unloading

99

b.
c.

3.

Line-Haul Costs – costs that vary with the distance traveled and expenses incurred Tapering Principle – Carrier costs tend to decrease as the length of haul increases because costs are spread over a greater number of miles.

1. contained early population centers
3. steady influx of immigrant labor

2. a growing canal and railway network
4. concentration of investment capital

Chapter 10
1.

2.

The North refers to the rich, advanced countries such as Canada, the United States, and the European nations. The South refers to the less advanced nations of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. This nomenclature is appropriate because almost all of the advanced nations, with the exception of Australia and New Zealand, are located in the Northern Hemisphere.

1.
2.
3.
4.
3. 1.
3.

poverty and underdevelopment are tropical conditions (found in the lower latitudes) resource poverty, typically lacking in raw materials
overpopulation and overcrowding
former colonial status
GNP per capita and PPP
2. energy consumption per capita
caloric intake per capita
4. percentage of work-force in agriculture

Chapter 11
1.

2.
3.

1.
2.
3.
4.

All cities perform functions – that is, they have an economic base. No city exists in a vacuum.
Each city has an orderly internal arrangement of land uses, social groups, and economic functions. All cities have experienced problems of land use, social problems, and environmental concerns.

Social Status – Sectors

Family Status – Concentric Zones

Ethnicity – Multiple Nuclei

1. limitation on size of cities to avoid supercity growth and metropolitan sprawl 2. assurance of an internal structure of neighborhood equality and self-suffic iency 3. strict land use segregation

Chapter 12
1.

1. Area – Size

2. Relative Location
3. Shape
4. Location of Capital
City

2.

Advantage – larger the area the greater the chance of having natural resources
Disadvantage – difficult to manage (government, administration); may have inaccessible areas, sparsely populated
Advantage – access to innovation if on major trading routes Disadvantage – political problems with neighboring countries Advantage – compact shape with centrally located capital optimal Disadvantage – shape affects patterns of organization

Advantage – centrally located has ease of authority
Disadvantage – can lose advantage if country grows

1. Territory- The group must be concentrated in a core region that it claims as a national homeland. 2. Nationality – Certain cultural characteristics must provide a basis for the group’s perception of separateness and cultural unity.

3. Peripheral location – Troubled regions tend to be peripheral, often isolated areas

100

4. Social and economic inequality – The dominant culture group is seen as an exploiting class, socially and economically.

3.

1. Excess vote technique – concentrates the opposition’s votes in a few districts, and leaves few potential seats elsewhere
2. Wasted vote technique – dilutes the opposition’s strength by dividing its voters among a number of districts
1.
2.
3.

A districting arrangement that appears unfair may be appealed to the courts. Some candidates may have more workers or money to spend on their campaigns. Key issues may cut across party loyalties.

Chapter 13
1.

removal of vegetation
exposed soil susceptible to erosion by water
water table is lowered
grazing of animals removes further soil

2

vegetation cannot re-establish itself
water carries particles away
further vegetation is lost

1. reduction of oxygen, abundance of carbon dioxide
2. climate changes
3. species extinction of both plants and animals

3. 1. the size of the population using the resource
2. the region’s pattern of water use
3. the amount of deterioration in the quantity and quality of water in the area

101

Multiple Choice Questions
Chapter 1

1.A
11.A
21.A

2.D
12.C
22.B

3.B
13.B
23.D

4.D
14.A
24.C

5.B
15.C
25.A

6.D
16.A

7.B
17.C

8.D
18.C

9.A
19.A

10.D
20.C

Chapter 2

1.C
11.D
21.B

2.A
12.D
22.C

3.C
13.B
23.A

4.B
14.D
24.B

5.C
15.C
25.A

6.D
16.B

7.A
17.B

8.B
18.C

9.D
19.B

10.A
20.D

Chapter 3

1.A
11.D
21.B

2.A
12.C
22.C

3.D
13.C
23.D

4.D
14.D
24.A

5.A
15.C
25.A

6.B
16.B

7.B
17.A

8.C
18.C

9.A
19.D

10.D
20.C

Chapter 4

1.D
11.A
21.B

2.D
12.B
22.C

3.C
13.C
23.B

4.D
14.B
24.D

5.D
15.B

6.B
16.D

7.B
17.D

8.C
18.A

9.B
19.B

10.B
20.C

Chapter 5

1.B
11.C
21.D

2.A
12.A
22.D

3.C
13.B
23.C

4.A
14.C
24.B

5.C
15.A
25.D

6.D
16.B

7.D
17.C

8.C
18.B

9.A
19.D

10.D
20.C

Chapter 6

1.D
11.A
21.C

2.A
12.D
22.C

3.A
13.B
23.B

4.C
14.C
24.D

5.B
15.D
25.A

6.D
16.A

7.D
17.C

8.B
18.D

9.C
19.B

10.D
20.A

Chapter 7

1.A
11.A
21.B

2.C
12.D
22.D

3.D
13.B
23.C

4.D
14.D
24.A

5.C
15.C
25.B

6.D
16.B

7.A
17.B

8.B
18.D

9.C
19.A

10.D
20.C

Chapter 8

1.B
11.B
21.B

2.D
12.A
22.A

3.C
13.C
23.D

4.A
14.B
24.A

5.A
15.A
25.C

6.A
16.A

7.C
17.B

8.B
18.C

9.C
19.D

10.B
20.B

Chapter 9

1.A
11.A
21.C

2.B
12.A
22.B

3.D
13.A
23.D

4.D
14.B
24.B

5.C
15.B
25.A

6.B
16.A

7.D
17.C

8.A
18.D

9.D
19.B

10.C
20.A

Chapter 10

1.A
11.C
21.C

2.B
12.B
22.D

3.D
13.A
23.B

4.C
14.A
24.A

5.D
15.D
25.C

6.B
16.A

7.A
17.B

8.C
18.B

9.C
19.A

10.A
20.D

Chapter 11

1.C
11.D
21.D

2.A
12.C
22.C

3.D
13.A
23.D

4.D
14.D
24.B

5.A
15.B
25.B

6.C
16.A

7.D
17.B

8.A
18.C

9.B
19.B

10.B
20.D

Chapter 12

1.B
11.B
21.C

2.A
12.A
22.D

3.B
13.D
23.D

4.B
14.C
24.C

5.C
15.A
25.A

6.C
16.C

7.A
17.B

8.D
18.B

9.B
19.A

10.D
20.A

Chapter 13

1.D
11.B
21.C

2.B
12.A
22.C

3.C
13.B
23.D

4.A
14.B
24.B

5.C
15.A
25.C

6.A
16.D

7.A
17.D

8.C
18.D

9.D
19.B

10.A
20.A

102

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