The Expanding West
The Travels of Marco Polo – desire to explore the world (mostly the East). Europeans used God, glory, and gold as motivation for exploration. Western Europe leads exploration due to technological advances. Economic expansion, technological improvements, shipbuilding (Caravel), and navigational improvements (magnetic compass / astrolabe). Caravels – Dutch invention, cheap to build, stored a lot.
Astrolabe – compass for the sea.
Prince Henry the Navigator – school for navigation and funds early exploration. Portugal leads in the exploration.
Bartholomeu Dias – discovers Cape of Good Hope.
Sailing around the southern tip, into the Indian Ocean.
Vasco Da Gama – reaches India.
Alfonso d’Albuquerque – established Malacca.
Portugal’s competitor is Spain (seeks allies elsewhere).
Christopher Columbus – convinces Castile’s (Spain) King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to sponsor him. Plans to reach Asia, but makes serious error.
Believed earth’s much smaller than it actually is.
Lands on San Salvador (Bahamas), then makes three more voyages to the new world. Dies convinced that he had found a shorter route to Asia.
Columbian Exchange (the Grand Exchange) is a diverse and widespread exchange of animals, culture, plants, human populations (including slaves), ideas, and communicable disease.
Spain and Portugal now rivals (both claim land in the New World). Pope Alexander VI – attempts to settle the dispute by drawing a line on the globe. Treaty of Tordesillas – finally settles rivalry, dividing the world into two spheres of influence (the first use of word globalization).
Around the World
Spain’s Ferdinand Magellan – attempts to sail around the world. Magellan and some crew die in a fight with natives in the Philippines, and the remaining crew completes the voyage around the world.
More Spanish Conquests
Spanish conquistadors more to New World
Hernán Cortés – conquers Aztec Empire.
Francisco Pizarro – conquers Incan Empire.
Discovers gold and silver.
400,000 lbs of gold, 35,000,000 lbs of silver.
Dutch, English, and French now head to New World.
Slave trade increases, cultivation changes this dramatically. Middle Passage – Arduous Journey from the old world, to the new world, for slaves.
Portuguese here first, but have little success.
Spanish explorers settle in the Philippines.
Dutch and English also challenge in this region of the world. French are first to arrive in Southeast Asia.
Portuguese arrive at Calicut (6 years after Columbus lands on San Salvador). England’s Queen Elizabeth I grants charter to establish a trading company in India. English build trading factory (warehouse used for storage).
British East India Company – begins to govern India (Sir Robert Clive). India becomes the crown jewel of the British Empire.
Dutch and French also establish trade with India by mid-18th century. Purely an economic venture for the Dutch.
Portuguese here first, established Macau (Macao).
English (East India Company) - eventually replace the Portuguese. Hong Kong emerged as a more lucrative area than Macao.
Portuguese here first.
Western Europeans welcomed at first, but later banned (decided to send missionaries to convert the Japanese to Christianity) All were banned except for a small Dutch contingent who came for trading purposes only.
The South Pacific
Dutch (United East India Company) - send Abel Tasman to explore Great South Land. Sails around Australia and discovers Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Fiji Islands. British later send Captain James Cook to explore the region. Australia claimed by Great Britain.
Cook also explores New Zealand and Hawaii Islands (with statues in his honor in Hawaii).
Spain and Portugal (w/ Brazil) establish empires in both Latin and South America. French establish Saint Dominique, Martinique, and Guadalupe in West Indies. British establish Barbados, Jamaica, and Bermuda in West Indies (Quality). Dutch (led by Englishman Henry Hudson) establish New Netherlands. French arrive in Canada - discover furs (beaver) and make a profit. English establish Jamestown (first permanent English colony in North America), Plymouth Bay, and Massachusetts Bay.
Pilgrims - founded Plymouth (separatists).
Lived in Holland, decided the Dutch were no good.
Left Plymouth, England (came to North America) found a village (Plymouth) that had been abandoned. Squanto and Samasack were natives who knew English (friends). Taught the Pilgrims how to grow food/crops (Thanksgiving).
Puritans - (radical conservatives) wanted to purify the Church of England. 150 - 200k puritans came to North America (Boston Area).
Had to deal with the Witch Hysteria in 1692 (Salem Witch Trials).
Pilgrims wanted to separate from the Anglican Church.
Puritans wanted to purify the Anglican Church.
Lecture 6 Highlights - 17th & 18th Centuries
Absolutism - sovereign power rests in a monarch who rules by divine right (power from God).
Henry IV - converts to Catholicism.
King Louis XIII - let his minsters run the show (Cardinal Richelieu). Armand-Jean du Plessis du Richelieu.
Started Versailles mansion, requiring French Nobles to keep watch over the mansion when he was not there. King Louis XIV - the Great Sun King’s reign is considered the age of Louis XIV. This begins The Age of Opulence (wealthiness).
Powerful force in central Europe during the 17th century.
Frederick William the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia.
Frederick III - becomes Frederick I (first King of Prussia). Frederick II the Great - expands the army and bureaucracy in the 18th century. Junkers - wealthy landowners who form the backbone of the officer corps within the Prussian military.
Never became a strong, centralized, absolutist state - too many nationalities / ethnic groups (no-one stood out). Maria Theresa - only female ruler from the Hapsburg dynasty, father died with no male heirs (Salic law). Initiates a series of reforms; commerce, agriculture, military and perceptive. Died of health complications (fever).
Ivan IV - becomes first to take the title of tsar (czar).
Kiev Rouse - ruled by the grand dukes of Moscow.
Michael Romanov - ushers in the Romanov Dynasty.
Peter the Great - expands Russia’s frontiers, conducts numerous military campaigns, looked for a warm-water port, westernizes Russia, and builds the new capital of St. Petersburg. Peter III - assassinated by Russian nobles (some said he was insane). Wife Catherine the Great - assumes control.
Charter of Nobility issued - increased the power of the Russian nobles.
The English Revolution
Tudor Dynasty ends with Elizabeth I’s death (no heirs).
Stuart Dynasty begins with James I.
James I - advocates absolutism (divine right of Kings) which alienates most of Parliament. Parliament says England is ruled by the King in Parliament (join rule). Problems with Charles I - result in civil war where the royalists lose to Oliver Cromwell and New Model Army (radical Puritans). Charles I - executed. Monarchy and House of Lords both abolished, and England is now a republic (eleven years without a monarchy). Oliver Cromwell - disperses the Rump Parliament and rules as a military dictator (son Richard Cromwell rules briefly). Military rule no longer feasible - monarchy re-established with Charles II. Charles II dies and is succeeded by his brother, James II.
James II - wants England to return to being a Catholic nation. Group of nobles then invite William of Orange (Dutchman) to invade England. Glorious Revolution sees William of Orange and wife Mary II ascending to the throne.
Immanuel Kant - “What is Enlightenment,” man’s leaving his self caused immaturity (freedom to use one’s own intelligence). Motto of the Enlightenment - dare to know.
Emphasizes reason and individualism (scientific method, reason, natural law, hope, progress).
Intellectuals - literary people, professors, journalists, statesmen, economists, political scientists, and social reformers of the Enlightenment. Francois-Marie Arouet (Voltaire) - Tratise on Toleration.
Considered the greatest philosopher of the enlightenment, highly critical of the established Catholic Church, religious toleration as well, separation of Church and State (religious freedom). Charles de Secondat, baron de Montesquieu - Spirit of the Laws. Political thinker, scientific method to the social and political arena, famous for identifying the three types of Government (republic’s, monarchies, and despotism). Denis Diderot - Encyclopédie.
Classified dictionary of the sciences, arts, and trades.
The Social Sciences
The Physiocrats (Physiocracy)
Francois Quesnay - Tableau Économique.
Adam Smith - The Wealth of Nations - “Lassie Faire”.
The Later Enlightenment
Jean-Jacques Rousseau - harmonized individual liberty with government authority (the social contract).
Mary Astell - A Serious Proposal to the Ladies.
Women need to be better educated, advocating for equal education opportunities (earns her the title of the first English feminist). Mary Wollstonecraft - A Vindication of the Rights of Woman.
Lays the foundation for what is today feminism.
Women only appear less than men because of the lack of education. Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (daughter) - Frankenstein.
Spreading the Ideas of the Enlightenment
Books, treaties (essays), the salon, coffeehouses, cafés, reading clubs, and public lending libraries.
A New Way to Rule
Enlightened absolutism based on certain natural rights [inalienable privileges] - such as equality, freedom of religious worship, freedom of the press, freedom of speech, right to assemble, right to hold property, & pursue happiness.
The War of Spanish Succession
Great Britain, Holland, and Austria vs. France and Spain.
Treaty of Utrecht - makes Great Britain a world power.
The war of Austrian Succession
Austria’s Charles VI dies with no heirs, but daughter Maria Theresa comes to the throne. Prussia invades Silesia.
Austria and Great Britain vs. France, Prussia, and Spain.
The Seven Years’ War
Begins in North America (French and Indian War).
Battle of the Plains of Abraham is fought for control of Quebec. Europe (Great Britain and Prussia vs. Austria, Russia, and France). India (Great Britain vs. France).
Peace of Hubertusburg ends war in Europe.
Treaty of Paris ends war in India and North America.
Lecture 7 Highlights - The Age of Revolutions
American colonists and the British government differ in views over taxation and representation. Virtual vs. Actual (or, direct) representation.
Virtual - one was already represented in Parliament by being a part of the British Empire. Actual - one wants direct representation (chosen by the people) in Parliament. War for Independence vs. The American Revolution; what’s the difference? Thomas Paine - Common Sense.
Journalist - met Ben Franklin in Europe, wanted to work for his publishing house in Philadelphia. He got a letter saying that he was welcome anytime. Decides to publish a pamphlet (48 pages) called “Common Sense” based on what he observed in the America’s. Convinces the neutral group that they need independence.
“The Yoke of Inconsistency” - a harness that is fitted around two horses so that you can get them to do manual labor. Thomas Jefferson - Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence and takes it to the Second Continental Congress (making changes and then accepting the document) - July 2nd, 1776. Needed copies for the men fighting in the fields (reason for delay of approval) now those who are fighting are fighting for independence, not just to win. Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness (the grievances of the King) that Jefferson puts into the Declaration of Independence (a student of The Enlightenment). British army of Yorktown surrendered, ending the war.
Treaty of Paris - officially ended the war, and changed the map of the America’s.
A New American Government
Articles of Confederation - replaced by the Constitution of the United States. No executive, judicial, legislative branch. Power resided in the states. Unicameral legislature (each state had one vote).
Each state retained its sovereignty, freedom, and independence. Desire to move away from the Articles of Confederation.
Shay’s Rebellion (cause of motion).
All French citizens belong to an estate (an order of society). 1st estate - clergy (own 10% of all land, exempt from taxation). 2nd estate - nobility (???).
3rd estate - all others, the masses (8 - 10% are Bourgeoisie’s). Bourgeoisie (middle class) want more political power.
Burden of taxation falls on the lower classes (peasants).
Types of taxation - land, poll, Catholic Church, and income. Causes of the French Revolution: check for PowerPoint display.
Jacques Necker - appointed finance minister (known as Alexander Hamilton of France). Louis XVI - calls Estates-General into session unleashing an elementary revolutionary wave. French Revolution starts at the top and works its way down.
French Revolution moved from right to left (aristocrats to the masses). Represents the people’s triumph over despotism.
1st and 2nd Estates have 300 representatives each in the Estates-General. 3rd Estate has 600 total representatives, but have no political power. Proclaims itself the National Assembly and issues the Tennis Court Oath vowing to give France a new Constitution.
Jacques Necker - dismissed.
Masses protest by storming the Bastille - Bastille Day.
Represents old France, sits in the center of Paris, holding political prisoners (containing weapons, ammo… everything a revolution needs). National Assembly - issues August Decrees abolishing serfdom; confiscating Church lands; and reorganizing the judicial and administrative systems. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (PowerPoint) asserts certain fundamental rights such as liberty, equality, and fraternity (liberty, property, and security). Bourgeoisie - quickly lose control and direction of revolution. Louis XVI - reluctant to accept the reforms until a mob attacks the palace.
A New Constitution
Limited constitutional monarchy.
Legislative Assembly now holds the power.
King and Queen’s powers are reduced.
New Representative body (legislative assembly).
Louis XVI flea’s France, but is caught.
Disguised himself as a servant. Brought back to Paris, and is now under house arrest.
King Leopold II and Frederick William II urge other European monarchs to intervene in France to prevent the revolution from spreading across Europe. France declares war on Austria (hundreds of thousands volunteer due to economic and political mess. The revolution threatened to take away rights, powers, and sovereignty. Legislative Assembly suspends the powers of Louis XVI.
National Convention (legislative assembly) convenes.
Universal man-hood suffrage (now able to decide who they want in the National Convention). National Convention has the legislative power.
The Committee of Public Safety has the executive power.
Great Britain, Dutch, Prussia, Portugal, and Spain join the War against France. 1.196 million men.
A Deadly Phase
Reign of Terror established by the National Convention and the Committee of Public Safety (headed by Maximillen Robespierre). Unleashes a deadly phase as thousands are executed with the guillotine (Dr. Guillotine) referred to as the national razor. Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette are both executed.
Majority of the victims come from the lower classes (radical individuals) being 8% nobility, 25% bourgeoisie, and 6% church officials. Robespierre becomes the final victim of the reign of terror (the device he supported using to get rid of the rest). Put on trial (he’s out of control) and executed.
Another New Constitution
The Constitution of 1795 creates a Council of 500 and the Council of Elders (5 serve as the Directory). First bi-cameral legislature.
Napoleon Bonaparte takes control of the Directory.
Named 1st Consul and Consul for life.
Becomes Emperor Napoleon I in the Cathedral of Notre Dame (crowning himself). Napoleon’s Dictatorship
Issues the Concordat (1801).
Napoleon and the catholic decided that they would recognize each other. He realizes he needs the Catholic Church’s support.
Affairs of the Church vs. running France as a Dictatorship.
Napoleonic Code introduced (1804).
Re-codification of French law.
Sometimes referred to as the French Civil Code.
Other nations borrow heavily from this code.
Holy Roman Empire is dissolved (1806).
Germanic Confederation emerges in Europe.
The Napoleonic Wars
Napoleon’s Grand Empire consists of an enlarged France; the dependent states (ruled by Napoleon’s relatives); & the allied states (those defeated by Napoleon Bonaparte’s military forces) _________.
Maria-Anna Elisa (Duchess of Lucca and Princess of Piombino, Grand Duchess of Tuscany, Countess of Compignano). Marie Pauline - _______.
Continental System formed by Napoleon Bonaparte to defeat Great Britain on the continent (attempts to defeat them with any means necessary). Downfall - Napoleon Bonaparte invades Russia and loses for the first time. 600,000 men set out on this campaign (for a while it’s pretty easy, but then the winter set in and came early, the French army became literally frozen in their tracks). Napoleon’s Downfall
Napoleon Bonaparte is defeated and exiled to the Island of Elba (off the coast of Italy). Bourbon Dynasty is restored with Louis XVII.
Napoleon Bonaparte escapes from Elba, returning to France and re-arms his loyal troops. Napoleon Bonaparte is finally defeated at the Battle of Waterloo and is exiled to the Island of St. Helena. (South Atlantic Southeast of Africa, far away). Dictated to his personal secretary his memoirs.
Napoleon Bonaparte dies in exile of St. Helena.
Napoleon’s remains re-buried in France (1840).
Lecture 8 Highlights - Reaction and More Revolutions
Great Powers consist of Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. Congress of Vienna (1814) led by Austria’s Prince Klemens von Metternich. Goal is to restore legitimate monarchs to Europe’s thrones. French are being punished for Napoleon’s exploits.
No single state should have more power (balance of power).
Concert of Europe consists of Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, and later France. Meeting periodically, Quintuple Alliance adopts the principle of Intervention.
Latin American Independence
Prior to 1800, Latin and South America remain in the hands of Spain and Portugal. Slowly the countries of Latin and South America begin to break free. Argentina declares her independence (1816).
Columbia (1819) and Venezuela (1821) obtain independence with the aid of Simón Bolívar. José de San Martin helps Chile (1817) and Peru (1821) obtain their independence. Mexico breaks from Spain (1821).
Portugal recognized Brazil’s independence (1822).
United States issues the Monroe Doctrine (1823).
During his speech to Congress during the State of the Union address, warning all the other countries to allow the other countries to obtain independence. We violate the Monroe Doctrine more than any other country.
The Greek Situation