Eia & Ems

Topics: Ozone depletion, Chlorofluorocarbon, Montreal Protocol Pages: 9 (2259 words) Published: June 6, 2013
CENG 4720 Mid-Semester SOLUTIONS

1. What are the four main classes of emissions discharges controlled by most natural ordinances? The four main classes are hazardous solid wastes, water waste, gaseous waste and conservation of living thinks (4 marks)

2. What is the Treaty of Rome concerned with?

It is officially named “Treaty establishing the European Economic Community” (TEEC). It involved three major goals: 1) Create a common market
2) Create a customs union
3) Develop common policies
The treaty regulated that the tariffs between signed nations should progressively reduce annually and required the nations to establish a customs union. It led to the establishing the European Economic Community which later became the European Commission. The treaty was signed by 6 nations, namely Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and West Germany, on March 1957 in Paris, and in effect from 1 January 1958. The treaty proposed the creation of a common market of capitals, goods, services and workers within the EEC’s member states as mentioned above. It also proposed to create common transport and agriculture policies and a European social fund. Example:

Once the treaty had been established the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in July 1952, countries decided to achieve integration via trade with a view to economic expansion. So they began work to transform the conditions of trade and manufacture in the Community. (5 marks)

3. What is the Kyoto Protocol concerned with?
The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which commits its parties by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. It was adopted in the treaty was ratified by 191 countries (all UN members, except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan and the United Stated) including the European Union. There were two commitments periods (2008-2012 and 2013-2020) for the committed countries and they were legally binding to the emission target. It is concerned with the emission of greenhouse gases. The defined protocol stated quantitative target reductions in greenhouse gases emissions, including CO2, CH4, NOX, HFCS etc, for 2010 (+2) based on 1990 figures and SF6 and PFCS based on 1995 figures, agreed by 113 countries. In 2002, the US government decided against implementing their previously agreed 7%reduction because of its likely economic impact. (5 marks)

4. What is the Montreal Protocol concerned with?
Montreal Protocol (The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer) is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the production of numerous substances believed to be responsible for ozone depletion. The treaty was opened to countries to sign since 16 September 1987, and in force since 1 January 1989. It is currently ratified by 197 states and the EU.

In the 1970’s there was a research discovered that CFCs caused damages to ozone layer in the stratosphere. The depletion of ozone created a hole in the ozone layer and the failure of blocking short wavelength UV light (e.g. UVB) will result increase of chance of getting skin cancer. In 1985, the British Antarctic Survey discovered a hole in the ozone layer over the South Pole, later this discovery was awarded a Nobel prize.

It is concerned with the emission of ozone depletion substances. Understanding the impact of greenhouse gases, representatives from 24 industrialized countries agreed to immediately freeze CFC production at 1986 levels and progressively reduced production to 50% of this level by 2000. It was then revised in 1990 and 93 countries agreed to end CFC and CCI4 production by 2000.

The main groups which contribute a lot to the ozone depletion include methyl chloroform CHCI3, carbon tetrachloride CCI4, hydrofluorocarbons HCFCs chlorofluorocarbon CFCs, and halon. They are usually used a refrigerants, solvent and...
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