The AP European History: Study Notes

Topics: European Union, Europe, Germany Pages: 3 (642 words) Published: December 3, 2013
FRQ 16

After World War II, the continent of Europe was left in socioeconomic and political disarray. A devastated Europe was divided between Eastern and Western nations with distinct differences until the collapse of the Eastern Bloc. Social and political differences polarized Europe from 1945 to 2001 whilst the desire for economic prosperity united the countries of Europe.

Social Differences
Preserving the unique history and cultural differences of European nations presented itself as a roadblock to early European cooperation.

•Long standing rivalries/histories

•Nationalism (France 1960s DeGaulle withdrawal from NATO)

•Class/Wealth/Ethnic distinctions between Nations

Political Differences

Political disagreements between Europe’s leaders lead to an impasse in early European cooperation.

•Concerns over Sovereignty/ Central Power over Europe/ Central Bank Currency Pound versus Euro (Maastricht Treaty)

•“Eureaucrats”/ Brussels

•East versus West/ NATO versus Warsaw-1989

Economic Unity
The desire for Economic prosperity was the ultimate cause for the creation of the European Union.

•Single European Act of 1986- laid down a legal framework for free movement of labor, capital and services

•European Community-1993 European Union (EU)/ Maastricht treaty- single currency (Euro)


•Unification of East and West-economic troubles/ “new Europe”


Metternich, Foreign Minister of Austria from 1815-1848, and Bismarck of Prussia from 1862-1890, were the same in their foreign policy goals with their conservative beliefs that the ideas of liberalism and revolution must be crushed, however Metternich often engaged in war while Bismarck only participated in war if completely necessary. Bismarck may have started with more liberal views but became an extreme conservative, to the extent that he had to find a way to appeal to the liberal Parliament in 1863. Although he supported a strong monarchy he...
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