Cultural Dimension Theories

Topics: Motivation, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Sociology Pages: 2 (628 words) Published: June 20, 2013
Enculturation – a nonintentional process that include all of the learning available as the result of what is in an environment to be learned (Herskovits 1948) Primary socialization which is a more intentional learning process than enculturation, occurs in the family and local community (Berger and Luckmann 1967) Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck’s (1961) Variations in Value Orientations (low > high) Relation to Nature – Subjugation, Harmony, Mastery Time Orientation – Past, Present, Future Basic Human Nature – Evil, Neutral/Mixed, GoodActivity Orientation – Being, Contain/Control, Doing Relationships among People – Ind. Group, HierarchicalSpace Orientation – Private, Mixed, Public Hofstede’s Dimensions of Cultural Values (1980, 2001) – work-related values Individualism / collectivismLow / High Power DistanceWeak / Strong Uncertainty Avoidance Masculinity / Femininity (Mas – tough, value of success, money; Fem – tender, personal relationship, care) The Chinese Value Survey – PD, Ind vs Col. Mas vs Fem / Confuciansim High Confucian = long-term orientation (future concern and value thrift and persistence) JAP Low Confucian = short-term orientation (past / present, respect for tradition and social obligation) US Schwartz’s Value Survey (1992) – Embeddendness(鑲嵌) – (life come from social relation) vs Autonomy Intellectual Autonomy – creativity, phil. ArgumentAffective – ind. Postitive exp make ind feel gd (quality of life) Hierarchy vs EgalitarianismMastery vs Harmony

Trompenaars’ Dimensions of Culture (1993) – Universalism vs Particularism eg. Business contract (right or wrong)Ind. Vs Communitarianism = CollectivismSpecificity vs Diffusion (How separate we keep private and working)Achievement vs Ascription(Prove to receive status or given to us since born)Inner vs Outer (Direction)(Control envir. Or controlled by – conflict manage) Sequential Time vs Synchronous Time (Do one thing at a time or several once) Hall’s High and low context culture (1976) – Private...
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