chapter notes

Topics: Television network, Television, Broadcasting Pages: 8 (5383 words) Published: October 30, 2014
Broadcast Television __________________________________________________________________ This chapter will prepare students to trace the development of television describe the evolution of the networks explain the impact of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 detail the implications of the digital age for broadcast television explain how television ratings are formulated describe the departments of the television industry and how programs are produced Chapter main points Electronic television developed during the 1930s. After World War II it quickly grew in popularity and replaced radio as the main information and entertainment medium. Three networks NBC, CBS, and ABC dominated early TV. Live drama, variety, and quiz and game shows were popular during the 1950s. Television matured in the 1960s, and its content became more professional. The public television network began in 1967. Cable TV grew slowly during this decade. The 1970s saw TV programs criticized for excessive violence. In the 1980s and 1990s, the tree traditional TV networks lost viewers to cable and to VCRs. The Fox network became a major competitor. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 had a significant impact on TV station ownership and also introduced program content ratings. Rules for the eventual conversion to digital RTV were announced in 1997. TV broadcasting has switched from analog to digital broadcasting. TV stations may use the digital signal to broadcast high-definition television or lower-definition programs among which viewers may choose. HDTV sets are in more than 50 percent of U.S. homes. TV is universal, dominant, and expensive. Its audience is currently fragmenting into smaller segments. The broadcast TV industry consists of program suppliers, distributors, and local stations. Big conglomerates own the major TV networks, and large group owners control most of the stations in large markets. Public broadcasting relies less on tax revenues and more on private sources of funding. The Nielson Company compiles both network and local-station television ratings. __________________________________________________________________ For most of its early history, televisions signals were broadcast and received via roof-top antennas. Then came cable, satellite, and the Internet. Most people dont care how their TV signals are distributed, but there are areas in which the distribution channel makes a difference. Over-the-air broadcast is regulated differently than the other distribution channels. The other channels also have different revenue streams from broadcast TV. Importantly, they are all coping in different ways with the digital revolution. This chapter will examine traditional broadcast TV, and the next chapter will look at the newer forms of transmission. A BRIEF HISTORY OF BROADCAST TV During the 1920-1930s, two American inventors helped lay the foundations for television in its early development Philo Farnsworth and Vladimir Zworykin. Picture quality was poor, sets were expensive, there werent many programs to watch, and public response was lukewarm. The FCC halted development of TV during WWII. After the war ended, TV got a big boost as technology developed during the war was applied to the new medium. Equipment was better, more content was available, networks appeared, and the number of new stations grew dramatically. In 1945 there were only eight stations and 8,000 homes with TVs, but just ten years later there were 100 stations and 35 million TV households. Growth was so rapid by 1948 that the FCC imposed a freeze on new station licenses. The freeze lasted four years, and by 1952 the FCC established technical rules to minimize station interference and decided that 12 VHF and 70 UHF channels would be reserved for TV. The 1950s Television takes off Networks, Tape, UHF, and Color TVs early structure was modeled after radio. Local stations provided service to their communities and, in turn, might be affiliated with networks (CBS, NBC, ABC,...
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