Chapter 3 Cell Structure Notes

Topics: Cell, Protein, Endoplasmic reticulum Pages: 4 (1030 words) Published: November 13, 2013
Chapter 3: Cell Structure Notes
The cell is the basic unit of biologic organization of the human body Protoplasm: an aqueous colloidal solution of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and inorganic salts surrounded by a limiting cell membrane Cells in our respiratory tract produce mucus to trap dust and microorganisms that get past the hairs in our nose then move the material to our throat to be swallowed and passed out through the digestive system The most prominent structure in the cell is the nucleus and cells are measured in microns/micrometers Nucleoplasm: protoplasm inside the nucleus

Cytoplasm: protoplasm outside the nucleus
Robert Hooke was an English scientist who first described cells in 1665. Later, Anton von Leeuvenhoek (Dutch naturalist) observed pond water under his microscope and called the tiny organisms, macules. Matthias Schleiden, a botanist, stated that all plants are composed of individual units called cells. Theodor Schwann, a zoologist, stated that all animals are also composed of cells. Modern Cell Theory:

Cells are the smallest complete living thing
All organisms are composed of cells
Cells arise from preexisting cells through cellular division All of today’s existing cells are descendants of the first cells formed early in the evolutionary history of life on Earth The plasma membrane (plasmalemma) is composed of a double phospholipid layer w/ proteins embedded in the phospholipid layer. The rounds balloon-like part is hydrophilic (attracts water) and the double tails are hydrophobic (repels water). Arrangement like fluid mosaic pattern. Functions of a protein in the double phospholipid layer:

allow for the passage of molecules and ions across the
make transport channels for ions
act as enzymes for active transport
receptor sites for hormones to gain entrance into the cell
cell identity marker
cementing materials for cell adhesion on the outside of cells to hold cell together structural support inside cell...
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