In Class Quiz - Chapter 5
1. Explain the difference between chromatin, chromosome, nucleosome and histones. Chromatin- is the combination of DNA, histone, and other proteins that make up chromosomes. Chromosome- is minimally very long continuous piece of DNA which contains many genes regulatory elements and other intervening nucleotide sequences. Nucleosome- is considered to be one of the most stable particles in the DNA that helps in the compacting and transcripting the DNA information. Histones- type of basic protein that forms the unit around which DNA is coiled in the nucleosomes of eukaryotic chromosomes. They are all made up of different type of proteins but work together to functions. 2. Describe what is going on in the 5 stages of mitosis. What is a spindle anyway? The Anaphase stage of is happening, A spindle is a microtubule structure that brings about chromosomal movement during nuclear division. 3. Compare Meiosis I to Meiosis II. Do they end up with the same exact results? Why or why not? Both Meiosis I and Meiosis II have four steps, but in Meiosis II it is a repeat of everything but instead of chromosomes sister chromatids are formed. No they do not end up with the same exact results, because during Meiosis II is the duplication stage basically.
4. What do the terms synapsis and crossing over mean? How does this affect genetic?
The exchange of genetic material between homologous and yes it happens in chromosomes that occur during meiosis and contribute to genetic variability.
5. How important is independent assortment? What are the consequences of Nondisjunction?
Independent assortment is the random assortment of chromosomes during the production of gametes, the results are genetically unique individual gametes, it’s also important for survival. The consequences result in a gamete or egg cells too have too few or too many chromosomes. This can lead to different diseases.
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