Chapter 1 - Outline!
AP U.S. History
a. Three things Native Americans had in common!
i. They identiﬁed themselves primarily as members of multigenerational families rather than as individuals or subjects of governments.! ii. Most emphasized reciprocity and mutual obligation rather than coercion as means of maintaining harmony within and between
iii. They perceived the entire universe, including nature, as sacred.! II. The First Americans, c. 13,000-2500 B.C.!
a. Peopling New Worlds!
i. Two main theories about the origins of the people of the Americas! 1. One theory holds that Siberian hunters, pursuing game
animals, crossed the expanse of land linking Asia with North America during the last Ice Age, arriving only around 10,500 B.C. According to this theory, the hunters made their way
through a glacial corridor, dispersing themselves over much
of the Western Hemisphere. !
2. A second theory, based on recent archaeological ﬁnds,
suggests that the ﬁrst humans arrived much earlier by boat, following the then-continuous coast to Alaska and
progressing southward. At various points along the way,
groups stopped and either settled nearby or traveled inland
to establish new homes.!
ii. Description of early Americans’ lives/culture!
1. Most Paleo-Indians appear to have traveled within welldeﬁned hunting territories in bands consisting of several families and totaling about ﬁfteen to ﬁfty people. Men hunted, while women prepared food and cared for the children.!
b. Archaic Societies!
i. Description of how and why Native Americans’ culture changed! 1. Native American culture changed due to the warming of the Earth's atmosphere, which led to a variety of different plants and animals developing. The Native Americans were able to
use the resources of their environment more efﬁciently,
required less land area, and were able to support larger
populations. Men took the responsibility for ﬁshing as well as hunting, while women procured wild plant products. By 5000
C.E., some Native Americans were starting to farm. They
cultivated squash, beans, chili peppers, fruit, and by 2500
III. Cultural Diversity, c. 2500- A.D. 1500!
a. How did Native American’s way of life change?!
i. The Native Americans main sources of food became the crops they cultivated. In some of the societies, farming was very
intensive and it radically changed the environment. Some
nonfarming and farming societies transformed trade networks into extensive religious and political systems that linked several local communities. Some of the groupings evolved into formal
confederacies and hierarchal states. In areas where there were few food sources, the nomadic tribes survived by hunting, ﬁshing, and gathering. !
b. Mesoamerica and South America !
i. Describe the chiefdoms that grew !
1. Chiefdoms eventually emerged over much of the Americas,
from the Mississippi valley to the Amazon valley and the
Andes Mountains. They were highly unequal, with thousands
of residents dominated by a few wealthy elites and with
hereditary rulers claiming kinship with religious deities.
Although men ruled most chiefdoms and states, women
served as chiefs in some Andean societies until the Spanish
1. Teotihuacan was the capital of the largest early state. It is about ﬁfty miles northeast of modern Mexico City. In the
center of the city was a complex of pyramids. Teotihuacan
dominated the peoples of the valley of Mexico, and its trade networks extended over much of modern-day Mexico. Even
though the city declined in the eighth century, it had an
enormous inﬂuence on the religion, government, and culture of its neighbors. It had the greatest inﬂuence on the Mayans.
a. Why did maize cultivation not reach this area until 2500 B.C.- how did this affect farming?!
i. Full-time farming began after 400 B.C....
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