typhoid fever

Topics: Fever, Immune system, Salmonella Pages: 25 (515 words) Published: September 23, 2014
TYPHOID
FEVER
BY: CATHERINE E. JOAQUIN

REPORT CONTENT


INTRODUCTION



SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS



PATHOGENS AND VIRULENCE FACTORS



PATHOGENESIS/TRANSMISSION



EPIDEMIOLOGY



DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION

INTRODUCTION

What are Food & Waterborne
Diseases?
 Diseases

that are supported, carried
or transmitted by food & water.

 Examples

are: Cholera, Hepatitis A,
Amoebic Dysentery, & Typhoid Fever

INTRODUCTION

What is a Typhoid Fever?
 It

is an acute bacterial infection
characterized by fever, headache
and abdominal discomfort.

 Also

known as ENTERIC FEVER

PATHOGENS & VIRULENCE FACTORS

What causes Typhoid Fever?
 Typhoid

Fever is caused by the
bacterium Salmonella typhi from
the family Enterobacteriacea.

 Salmonella

typhi is a gram-negative
bacteria that is motile due to its
peritrichous flagella

 The

bacteria grows best at 37°C.

Color pink
therefore Gramnegative

With peritrichous
flagella

PATHOGENS & VIRULENCE FACTORS

can also be caused by Salmonella
paratyphi, a related bacterium that
usually causes a less severe illness
known as Paratyphoid Fever.

 It

PATHOGENESIS

How does the bacteria cause
disease?

Ingestion of
contaminated
food or
water

Salmonella
bacteria
penetrate the
epithelial wall
of the small
intestine

Phagocytosed
by
macrophages

PATHOGENESIS

How does the bacteria cause
disease?
S. typhi then
alters its
structure to
resist
destruction
and allow
them to exist
within the
macrophage

Spread via the
lymphatics
while inside
the
macrophages

Travels to the
reticulo
endothelial
system and
then to the
different
organs
throughout
the body

PATHOGENESIS

How does the bacteria cause
disease?
Goes back to
the
bloodstream
accompanied
with
development
of symptoms

Salmonella
bacteria may
be passed
out through
the stool

Cycle
continues

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Sustained High Fever

Loss of Appetite

Malaise

Rose Spots

Abdominal
Manifestation

Relative Bradycardia

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

WARNING SIGNS
(Terminal Stage)

 Dehydration/exhaustion
 Unable

to feed/take oral medications
 Bloody/black tarry stool
 Severe abdominal pain
 Cold, clammy skin with hypotension
 Pallor
 Behavioral change (typhoid psychosis)

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS

Typhoid Terminal State

EPIDEMIOLOGY






Typhoid fever occurs
worldwide, primarily in
developing nations whose
sanitary conditions are poor.
Typhoid fever is endemic in
Asia, Africa, Latin America,
the Caribbean, and Oceania.
Typhoid fever infects roughly
21.6 million people and kills an
estimated 200,000 people
every year.

EPIDEMIOLOGY

 WHO

identifies typhoid as a serious
health problem

 Incidence

is highest in children and
young adults between 5 to 19 years
old.

As of MW 27 (Jan.1-Jul.5,2014)

MODES OF TRANSMISSION
Water

Feces
and
Urine
from
Cases or
Carriers

Soil

Flies
Fingers

Foods
(raw
or
cooked)

Mouth
of

A
Well
Person

DIAGNOSIS

How is Typhoid Fever diagnosed?
 Blood,

bone marrow or stool cultures

 Widal

Test

 Slide


agglutination

Typhidot

 Antimicrobial

susceptibility testing

TREATMENT (DRUG)

How is Typhoid Fever treated?
 Chloramphenicol

– original drug used to
treat typhoid fever but was replaced
because of many rare side effects
 Antibiotics – ampicillin, trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin
 Ceftriaxone, Azithromycin – antibiotics
used for MDR typhoid (multidrugresistant typhoid)

TREATMENT (GENERAL)

How is Typhoid Fever treated?
 Isolation

and rest
 Suitable diet include easy digested food
or half-liquid food and drinking more
water
 IV fluid to maintain water and acid-base
and electrolyte balance
 Symptomatic : antipyretic

PREVENTION

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