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Geography AS Level Notes

By dansab123 Oct 16, 2014 484 Words
BBHS CASE STUDY - Bangladesh - The causes and impacts of the 1998 Flood Bangladesh - Fact File
is one of the world's most densely populated countries!
has a population of 125m inhabitants
is one of the poorest countries in the world with a GNP of $200 per head has three of the world's most powerful rivers passing through its country - The Ganges, the Meghna & the Brahmaputra contains virtually no raw materials or rock

experiences floods and tropical storms every year

The Physical Causes of the Floods
Most of the country consists of a huge flood plain and delta 70% of the total area is less than 1 metre above sea level
10% of the land area is made up of Lakes and Rivers
Snowmelt from the Himalayas takes place in late spring & summer Bangladesh experiences heavy monsoon rains, especially over the highlands Tropical storms bring heavy rains and coastal flooding

The main cause was the above average & long period of heavy rain which caused all 3 rivers to have their peak flow at the same time!!!   
The Human Causes of the Floods
Deforestation in Nepal and the Himalayas increases run off and adds to deposition and flooding downstream Urbanisation of the flood plain has increased magnitude & frequency of floods the building of dams in India has increased the problem of sedimentation in Bangladesh Global warming is blamed for sea level rise, increased snow melt & increased rainfall in the region Poorly maintained embankments (levees) leak & collapse in times of high discharge The Effects of the 1998 Floods

Over 57% of the land area was flooded
Over 1300 people were killed
7 million homes were destroyed
25 million people were made homeless
There was a serious shortage of drinking water & dry food
Diseases spread such as bronchitus and cholera/diarrhoea
As the waters receded - it left fields of rotting crops, wrecked roads and bridges and destroyed villages 2 million tonnes of rice was destroyed
1/2 million cattle and poultry were lost
Overall the floods cost the country almost $1 billion
Flood Management in Bangladesh
In 1989  the government of Bangladesh began working with a number of international agencies to produce a Flood Action Plan. This huge scheme contained 26 action points which it was hoped would provide a long term solution to the country's flooding problems. Short Term Management

Boats to rescue people
Emergency supplies for food, water, tents and medicines
Fodder for livestock
Repair and rebuild houses, as well as services such as sewage etc Aid from other countries
Long Term Management
Reduce Deforestation in Nepal & Himalayas
Build 7 large dams in Bangladesh to store excess water $30-$40 million and 40 yrs to complete Build 5000 flood shelters to accommodate all the population
Build 350km of embankment - 7 metres high at a cost of $6 billion to reduce flooding along the main river channels Create flood water storage areas
Develop an effective Flood Warning Scheme

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