Geographical Information System

Topics: Geographic information system, GIS applications, Geographic information systems Pages: 5 (671 words) Published: March 17, 2014
Oppong Kofi Appaw
- 04/2009/542D
Courage Amegashe
- 04/2009/509D
Nkum Emmanuel
- 04/2009/535D
John-Bunya Nyuiemedi Klutse - 04/2009/530D

What GIS is
Components of GIS
Databases and GIS
General purpose (usage)
The benefits of GIS
GIS Application

A geographic information system (GIS) is a computer
based tool for mapping and analyzing spatial data(it is the
data or information that identifies the geographic location of features and boundaries on Earth, such as natural or constructed features, oceans, and more) . GIS technology integrates

common database operations such as query and
statistical analysis with the unique visualization and
geographic analysis benefits offered by maps. These
abilities distinguish GIS from other information systems
and make it valuable to a wide range of public and
private enterprises for explaining events, predicting
outcomes, and planning strategies.

Software (arcview)
 Data
 People
 Methods

GIS performs six basic tasks and these are
1. Input of data
2. Map making
3. Manipulation of data
4. File management
5. Query and analysis(How far is it between two places?
• How is this particular parcel of land being used?
• What is the dominant soil type for oak forest?
• Where are all the sites suitable for relocating an endangered species? • Where are all of the sites possessing certain characteristics? • If I build a new highway here, how will animals in the area be affected)

6. Visualization of results

Databases & GIS
Spatial data

• At a simple level a
GIS may just form
the graphical
interface to a
• The majority of GIS
applications follow
this example


Linked database table

SQL Query Manager

The benefits of GIS include:
Better information management
 Higher quality analysis
 Ability to carry out “what if?” scenarios
 Improve project efficiency


Facilities management(electricity, gas, water and cable communication companies )

Marketing and retailing(: these applications tend towards targeting customers and identifying potential markets for customers)
Environmental (Forestry management, impact analysis, resource management, coastal zone mapping, geophysical & geotechnical surveys.) Transport/vehicle routing
Health(Disease mapping as well as epidemiology)
Insurance( risk distribution analysis, catastrophe planning, customer service analysis)


Whitebox GAT – Open source and transparent GIS software
Kalypso (software) – Kalypso is an Open Source GIS (Java,
GML3) and focuses mainly on numerical simulations in water
TerraView – GIS desktop that handles vector and raster data stored in a relational or geo-relational database, i.e. a frontend for TerraLib.
Capaware – Capaware is also an Open Source GIS, a C++ 3D GIS Framework with a multiple plugin architecture for geographic graphical analysis and visualization.
FalconView – FalconView is a mapping system created by the Georgia Tech Research Institute for the Windows family of
operating systems. A free, open source version is available.

GIS Applications
Facilities management: Utilities such as electricity, gas, water and cable communication companies all use GIS systems to store, retrieve and analyse their plant and materials. Areas such as customer responses, demand forecasting, fault analysis, network assessment analysis, site planning, strategic planning and market analysis can be generated by the GIS.

Marketing and retailing: these applications tend towards targeting customers and identifying potential markets for customers. The extensive datasets generated from the use of loyalty cards can also be used in conjunction with GIS. Other applications may include: media planning, territory allocation and prospect analysis. Environmental: Forestry...
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