Effect of Personal Factors (Age, Gender, Education, Religion, and Governmental Experience) on Ethical Decision Making in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Topics: Ethics, Statistical hypothesis testing, Null hypothesis Pages: 10 (2534 words) Published: November 11, 2011
Prepared By: Muna Maayoof
Student ID: 20043043
Submission Date: 17th of July 2011
Second Semester

Effect of personal factors (Age, Gender, Education, Religion, and Governmental Experience) on ethical decision making in the kingdom of Bahrain

This paper reports on a small-scale investigation of five relationships in business ethics. (1) Age, (2) Gender, (3) Education, (4) Religion, (5) Governmental Experience. This investigation is based on a respond from 40 employees in the kingdom of Bahrain. The reason behind selecting this study is that I have great interest in business ethics, and I believe that ethics could have a great effect on day-to-day business activity. Therefore, people usually have different theories with regards to business ethics. And there ethicality could be determined through the mentioned factors.

Literature review
Throughout the history, Business Ethics has been a constant problem in almost all organizations around the word. According to Joanne B. Ciulla, the problem of Business Ethics still exist although the world has gone through many technological and cultural changes that are related to the Business Ethics concept. (Ciulla, 2011) But the question here is: are the employee’s business ethics improving regardless of the changes an organization is going through? Well to answer this, there are many factors to be considered. As a start, moral development has a great influence on a person to help him know the right act from the wrong one, in which the moral development changes while a person is growing up and could be enhanced or ruined by formal and informal education. In addition to moral development factor, there are other factors that contribute in the existence of the unethical behavior, such as: gender, age, education, government work experience, etc. (Mujtaba and Afza, 2011)

According to Wallace R. Baker: “It is not only painful but inefficient to live in a society where there are no ethics, law and order. Worse, if individuals or businesses become steeped in unethical practices, this trend generally engulfs the political world as well”. (Baker, 2007) Obviously, the country laws and politics play an important rule in increasing the unethical behaviors in organization. For example, if a businessman wanted to conduct a certain business in the kingdom of Bahrain, he must follow the ministry of commerce rules and regulations, however some of those rules might not be in his benefits, this will lead him to act unethically and try to go around those rules in order to achieve his goals. Since the goal of most organization – except for non-for-profit ones- is to achieve high profit margins, some directors and businessmen would go beyond ethical behaviors in order to accomplish this goal, because simply there job is to understand finance and marketing matters and not social responsibilities (Hooker, 2003). The firm must provide an organizational values and ethics training for all the staff. The goal of this training is to prepare the individual for future decision-making environment with little or no supervision. (Ferrell, 2005) Based on the theory of moral development, this study focuses on five areas that could have a direct effect on a person’s ethical decision-making process within private and public sectors. Those areas are: age, education, gender, government work experience, and religion. (Mujtaba and Afza, 2011) This study is based on Mujtaba’s and Afza’s research in Pakistan, however the sample used here will be selected from the kingdom of Bahrain. Also, the religion area is added because I believe that this area could have a great effect on the result in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Research Problem
As reflected by the literature review, this research is aiming to find the degree of employee’s ethics in making decisions. Because making the right decision usually yields organizational success. That...

References: Baker W.R, 2007, A Reflection on Business Ethics, UNESCO FORUM, From Http://portal.unesco.org/education/en/files/53748/11840802765Baker.

Beekun R.I, 1996, ‘Islamic Business Ethics’, International Institute of Islamic Thought, From Http://www.muslimtents.com/aminahsworld/ethicshm.pdf

Ciulla, Joanne B., 2011, ‘Is Business Ethics Getting Better? A Historical Perspective’, Society for Business Ethics Presidential Address

Hooker J., 2003, ‘Why Business Ethics?’, Carnegie Mellon University, From Http://web.tepper.cmu.edu/ethics/whybizethics.pdf.
Sikula, Andrew, Sr. and Adelmiro D. Costa, 1994, ‘Are Women More Ethical than Men?’, Journal of Business Ethics 13, 859-871

Washington, DC, America’s Most Pressing Ethical Problems, 1990. Washington, DC: The Ethics Resource Center, p. 1.
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