Business & Society Key Terms Ch.10-18

Topics: Social responsibility, Federal government of the United States, Corporate social responsibility Pages: 12 (3207 words) Published: April 16, 2014
Chapter 10 Terms
1. Biodiversity
a. The number and variety of species and the range of their genetic makeup. 2. Carbon Neutrality
a. When an organization or individual produces net zero emissions of greenhouse gases. 3. Carbon Offset
a. Investments in projects that remove carbon dioxide or its equivalent from the atmosphere. 4. Carrying Capacity
a. The maximum populations that the Earth’s ecosystem can support at a certain level of technological development. 5. Commons
a. Traditionally, an area of land on which all citizens could graze their animals without limitation. The term no refers to any shared resource, such as land, air, or water, which a group of people use collectively. 6. Eco-Efficiency

a. Occurs when business or societies are simultaneously economically efficient and environmentally responsible. 7. Ecological Footprint
a. One method of measuring the earth’s carrying capacity, and how far human society has exceeded it. 8. Ecology
a. The study of how living things-plants and animals-interact with one another in the Earth’s unified natural system or ecosystem. 9. Extended Product Responsibility
a. The idea that companies have a continuing responsibility for the environmental impacts of their products and services, even after that are sold. 10. Global Warming
a. The gradual warming of the earth’s climate, believed by most scientist to be caused by an increase in carbon dioxide and other trace gases in the earth’s atmosphere resulting from human activity, mainly the burning of fossil fuels. 11. Industrial ecology

a. Designing factories and distribution systems as if they were self-contained ecosystems, such as using waste from one process as raw material for another. 12. Kyoto Protocol
a. An international treaty negotiated in 1997 in Kyoto, Japan, that continued its signatories to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide. 13. Life-Cycle Analysis
a. Collecting information on the lifelong environmental impact of a product in order to minimize its adverse impacts at all stages, including design, manufacture, use and disposal. 14. Marine Ecosystems

a. This term refers broadly to oceans and the salt marshes, lagoons, and tidal zones that border them, and well as diverse communities of life that they support. 15. Montreal Protocol
a. An international treaty limiting the manufacture and use of chlorofluorocarbons and other ozone-depleting chemicals. 16. Ozone
a. A gas composed of three bonded oxygen atoms, Ozone in the lower atmosphere is a dangerous component of urban smog; ozone in the upper atmosphere provides a shield against ultraviolet light from the dun. 17. Sustainable Development

a. Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 18. Technology Cooperation
a. Long-term partnerships between companies to transfer environmental technologies to attain sustainable development. Chapter 11 Terms
1. Acid Rain
a. Rain that is more acidic than normal; occurs when emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from utilities, manufacturers, and vehicle combine with water vapor in the air. 2. Cap-and-Trade

a. Allows businesses to buy and sell permits that entitle the bearer to emit a certain amount of pollution. The government issues these permits and caps the total amount of pollution that may be produced 3. Command and Control Regulation

a. A regulatory approach where the government commands companies to meet specific standards (such as amounts of particular pollutants) and “controls” the methods (such as technology) used to achieve these standards. This approach is often contrasted with market-based regulatory approaches where the government establishes general goals and allows companies to use the most cost-effective methods possible to achieve them. 4. Ecologically Sustainable Organization

a. A business that operates in a way that is consistent with the principle of sustainable development. 5....
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