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WORLD WAR I

By ahamptonarnold29 Feb 11, 2014 1377 Words
Germany would fight their last major battle against the Allied Forces in the summer of 1918 in the Second Battle of the Marne. This was the last major offensive that Germany would fight in World War I. This battle was supposed to be the battle that turned the tide for Germany but, it ultimately led to their downfall. It began on the Month of July 15 and lasted until the 5th of August 1918 and it brought a comeback plan devised by Erich Lundendorff the Chief of Staff for Germany. The plan called for an attack on the Allied Forces by trying to bait them to go from Belgium to the Marne. On the 15th of July, 1918, Twenty Three divisions of the German Forces battled French Forces just on the east side of Reims. At the same time, other Seventeen German divisions attacked them from the West side. Erich Lundendorff tried to hit French Forces from both sides splitting them in half, but his attempt was futile because he didn’t know that American and British troops would be accompanying the French Forces in access of 80,000 troops, this led to the allied Forces gaining an advantage in the battle (Michael Duffy, 2009). On the west side however, the Germans were able to break through the line of French Army and make a defensive stance when they crossed the Marne by way of Dorman (Michael Duffy, 2009). Moreover, on July 17th German Forces attempted to break through the Allied Forces again, led by General Karl Von Einem (Michael Duffy, 2009). This attempt failed and led to a counter attack by Supreme Commander Ferdinand Foch on July 18th, 1918. After battling for two days; German forces would retreat, on July 20th, from the battle and attempt to regain their strength for another round of fighting on August 3rd (Michael Duffy, 2009). The second battle would commence at the Aisne-Vesle rivers and lead to the eventual halt of Allied forces on August 6th, whereupon the German forces would entrench themselves until Lundendorff postponed the Flanders offensive indefinitely (Michael Duffy, 2009).

The outline of the Second Battle of the Marne and Germany’s ultimate defeat by Allied forces explained why; one must take a closer look at exactly how such a battle would be fought by the skirmishing forces, both in the manner of tactic, location, method, and use of weaponry.

World War I was hoped to have been a short-lived event; pushed along by quick territorial gains and a sweeping victory for one side or the other. However, this was not the case at all. In fact; the majority of World War I’s battles would take place in the trenches, which would cover hundreds of miles on both sides of the enemy line (Michael Duffy, 2009). The construction of trenches would bring with them the promise of death, depression, poor hygiene, food contamination, vermin infestations, and illness (Michael Duffy, 2009).

Knowing of the factors that trenches would produce; trench rats would find their place at the top of the list, bringing about the fear and disdain in many soldiers of the trenches. Rats would feast upon the corpses of the dead; plucking out eyes and livers, while also spreading infection and contamination throughout the trenches by soiling food sources (Michael Duffy, 2009). The bodies of dead soldiers gave off the smell of rotting flesh and decomposition, while doing much to deteriorate the morale of fellow soldiers. The constant threat of attack crippled the composure of soldiers, leaving many to tremble amongst the fumes of sulfur, mud, and the coppery smell of blood. To make matters worse, soldiers would become riddled with lice and nits, which would bring about the development of Trench Fever among many soldiers (Michael Duffy, 2009).

The symptoms of Trench Fever would begin with sever body pains and lead to high fevers among the infected; leaving soldiers ill for nearly three months if they survived the trenches (Michael Duffy, 2009). Another development in the trenches would come in the form of Trench Foot, which is caused by a lack of foot hygiene and prolonged water exposure, developed in the form of fungal infections and would become gangrenous; leading to foot amputations in many cases (Michael Duffy, 2009).

The establishment of a “No Man’s Land” would quickly be developed in the area’s between Allied trenches and German trenches; effectively marking an area of “death on impact”, where soldiers would be shot on sight (Michael Duffy, 2009). The creation of a “stand to” would task soldiers with guarding the trench rims against enemy raids at dawn, which would later be referred to as the “Morning Hate” by many soldiers (Michael Duffy, 2009). Moreover, other common tasks would include the refilling of sand bags, trench duckboards, trench draining, and latrine preparations. Leisure time was spent attending to rifle cleaning, reading, personal hygiene, and general boredom; given freedom of movement was severely restricted by the presence of enemy snipers during the day (Michael Duffy, 2009). As dusk began to fall; soldiers would perform another “stand to” as they did at dawn, which would then be followed with the tasks of ration re-supplies, water collection, and the assignment of sentry guards (Michael Duffy, 2009). When it came to weapons; the common American infantrymen was the Lewis light machine gun, while Scout Snipers would zero in on the Lee-Enfield Bolt-Action Rifle, which allowed for accuracy up to a distance of 600 meters (The New York Times, 2012). The factor of dominance in the sky; the Farman MF-7 Longhorn/MF-11 Shorthorn (The Virtual Aviation Museum, 2006), Voisin Type-8 (Smithsonian Institution, 2012), and Handley Page bomber aircrafts would be developed for use by the Royal Flying Corps, French Army Air Service, and Royal Naval Air Service (U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission, 2012). Armored enforcement would come in the form of the “Little Willie” tank, which was approved for use by the Land ships Committee, and featured room for 10 soldiers, a two-pound main gun, and the ability to move at a whopping four miles an hour (A&E Television Networks, LLC., 2012). Some of the other weapons was designed for mass destruction, which would include the frag grenade, flame thrower (Center for Military History, 2012), and the use of mustard gas for use against entire groups of personnel. It was clearly evident that the imagination of hate had no boundaries, no sense of humanity, and absolutely no discretion.

World War I was nothing short of heart breaking issues; launched from the death of a single individual, and fought at the hands of several countries. The impact of World War I would prove to be horrendous to all countries involved, and many that weren’t; leaving the motivations of territorial furtherance, hate, and ambition as the driving force for international violence. Soldiers would become entrapped in their own tools of precaution and safety, the elements of nature and survival would lead many more soldiers into an ironic end, and all for the purpose of economic stability, revenge, and international image.

The evolution of armored warfare would begin as leaders sought improved methods of weaponry; giving way to the creation of the first armored tank (A&E Television Networks, 2012), the development of improved small arms and explosives, and the integration of improved aircraft into the area of war (Smithsonian Institution, 2012). In the end, Germany would be left with a sense of bitter defeat, while the Allied nations would return to waves of anguish, loss, and the development of an even deadlier situation than the Great War of 1914. Reference

A&E Television Networks, LLC. (2012). First Tank Produced. Retrieved February 02, 2014 from www.history.com Center for Military History. (2012). Flamethrower Expert. Retrieved February 02, 2014 from www.flamethrowerexpert.com Michael Duffy. (2009). Battles: The Second Battle of the Marne, 1918. Retrieved February 02, 2014 from www.firstworldwar.com Michael Duffy. (2009). Life in the Trenches. Retrieved February 02, 2014 from www.firstworldwar.com MilitaryFactory.com. (2012). Farman MF11 Shorthorn. Retrieved February 01, 2014 from www.militaryfactory.com Smithsonian Institution. (2012). Voisin Type-8. Retrieved February 01, 2014 from www.airandspace.si.edu The New York Times. (2012). James Parrish Lee Dead – Inventor of Rifles Used by American and British Armies. Retrieved February 03, 2014 from www.query.nytimes.com The Virtual Aviation Museum. (2006). Farman MF7 Longhorn. Retrieved February 03, 2014 from www.luftfahrtmuseum.com U.S. Centennial of Flight Commission. (2012). Handley Page. Retrieved February 03, 2014 from www.centennialofflight.gov Schultz, K. (2012). Becoming a World Power. Retrieved February 03, 2014 from University of Phoenix Library. Ch.21 HIS2 Vol. 2

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