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Why Did the Railroad Network Grow so Rapidly After the Civil War? What Consequences Did This Have for the Country's Economic Development?

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Why Did the Railroad Network Grow so Rapidly After the Civil War? What Consequences Did This Have for the Country's Economic Development?
Adults are motivated entirely different in the way they learn. Adults are motivated to learn for various reasons such as professional development, potential advancement at work or simply continuing to improve ones lives, as one gets older. However, it is but practical to consider the ideas on how adults are motivated to learn, what principles of learning works, so that adult educators could likewise respond appropriately. The participatory worldview that author Lyle Yorks (2005) describes draws heavily on the theory and practice in adult learning and action research. This creates a kind of social space in organization that is important in the facilitation of a practice-based example. Making it participative can always facilitate learning. Andragogy is defined as the art and science of helping adults learn. The term can also mean an alternative to pedagogy or what is known as learner-focused education for everyone. The model of andragogy consists of five assumptions, which must be considered and addressed, in formal learning. These are (1) an independent self-concept and who can direct his or her own learning, (2) has accumulated a reservoir of life experiences that is a rich resource for learning, (3) has learning needs closely related to changing social roles, and (5) is motivated to learn by internal rather than external factors (Merriam, 2001, p. 5). Developments in technology and the introduction of computers into the learning environment have changed the manner of learning inside the classroom. Traditionally, lessons are delivered using teacher-centered strategies. However, as technology-driven initiatives are introduced, there is a gradual shift into employing student-centered learning strategies. Constructivist theorists believe that these are essential to student-centered learning environment. a) centrality of the learner in defining meaning, (b) importance of situated, authentic contexts, and (c) negotiation and interpretation of


References: Boshier, P. (06/2006). Perspectives of Quality in Adult Learning. London, New York, NY: Continuum International Publishing. Brookfield, S. (2005). The power of critical theory: liberating adult learning and teaching. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass. Calder, J. (02/1993). Disaffection and Diversity: Overcoming Barriers for Adult Learners. London, Washington, D.C. The Falmer Press. Land, S. & Hannafin, M. (2000). Student centered learning environments in Theoretical foundations of learning environments. David H. Jonassen and Susan M. Land – (ed) Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Martinez, D. (08/2010). Online Education and Adult Learning: New Frontiers for Teaching Practices. Technical Communication. Vol. 57, Iss. 3;  pg. 353. Washington, D.C. Merriam, S. (2001). Andragogy and Self-Directed Learning: Pillars of Adult Learning Theory. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education. Issue 89, p3, 11p. Pedersen, S.and Williams, D. (2004) A comparison of assessment practices and their effects on learning and motivation in a student-centered learning environment, Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia, 13(3), 283-306. Yorks, L. (06/2005). Adult Learning and the Generation of New Knowledge and Meaning: Creating Liberating Spaces for Fostering Adult Learning Through Practitioner-Based Collaborative Action Inquiry. Teacher college records. Vol. 107, Iss. 6;  pg. 1217, 28 pgs. New York, NY.

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