What is management?
In this essay a number of different definitions of management will be compared and contrasted; moreover, it will discuses ‘management’ both as an organizational function, and as a subject of academic research and study. Also, major management theorists will be introduced. The term “management” pulls together variety of different functions in order to finish a task successfully. In most simplified way, management is about “getting things done”.
First, the aspect of management as an organizational function will be discussed. This aspect can be outlined in detail in several categories: As a process, management alludes to a series of interrelated functions. Pursuant to George R. Terry, (sitted in Raju, S., 2000, p6) “Management is a distinct process consisting of planning, organizing, actuating and controlling, performed to determine and accomplish stated objective by the use of human beings and other resources”. As an activity, like all other activities fulfilled by people such as writing, reading, running, eating etc, management is also an action because a manager is one who achieves the goals by leading the efforts of others. According to Koontz (sitted in Kumar, 2000 p.25) “Management is what a manager does”. Management as a group refers to all those people who carry out the task of managing an initiative. When we say that management of a company is good, we are intending to those who are leading. Hence as a group technically speaking, management will subsume all managers from the top to the bottom; However, in global practice management includes only top management i.e. Chief Executive, Chairman, General Manager, Board of Directors and so on.
According to Henri Fayol (sitted in Bagad, V., 2009, p.16), there are 14 major principles of management: Specialization of labor.
Unity of command.
Unity of direction.
Subordination of Individual Interests.
Scalar Chain (line of authority).
Esprit de corps.
The most substantial elements from all are specialization, unity of command, scalar chain, and, coordination by managers (a compound of authority and unity of direction). A principle of work allocation and specialisation with a view to focus activities to enable specialisation of skills and understandings, more work concentration and performance. The conception of “Unity of command” is that an employee should obtain instructions from one head only. This generalisation still holds - even where we are connected with team and matrix structures which involve reporting to more than one boss - or being accountable to various clients. The basic solicitude is that tensions and dilemmas appear where we report to more than one boss. One boss may desire one, the other may want different and the subordinate is caught between the rock and a hard place. The scalar chain of command of reporting relationships from top executive to the ordinary worker needs to be sensible, distinct and understood.Fayol's theories were the unconventional base for management as a subject and as a occupation. He was the first to advocate management education as well. Yet he has critics who abuse him, and followers who respect and admire him.
Another significant management theorist is Professor Henry Mintzberg. In reference to his book "Mintzberg on Management: Inside our Strange World of Organizations," in 1989, ten management roles are existed: 1. Figurehead.
8. Disturbance Handler.
9. Resource Allocator.
the manager must take the responsibility. You need to help mediate disputes within it as well. Negotiator - You may be needed to participate, and manage, substantial negotiations in your team, department, or institute....
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