Descriptive methodology = positive methodology: how it is
Positus ( ponere = put, place)
Prescriptive methodology= normative methodology”: how it ought to be Norm
Logical positvism =
Logicism = Scientific language is an extension of logic
Positivism = Empiricism (Knowledge arises out of sense experience)
The main aim of the logical positivist program was to demarcate (grenzen vaststellen van ) scientitific knowledge, distinguish science form pseudo-science and remove any kind of metaphysical. Their demarcation rule was to accept only analytic (tautologie – true by definition) or synthetic a posteriori (empirische onderzoek) propositions/statements as scientific knowledge. Immanuel kant (1724-1804):
Analytic, synthetic a posteriori, synthetic a priori propositions Synthetic a priori – universeel waar
Logical positivist were challenged by developments in mathematics and physics. So:
No synthetic a priori, only synthetic a posteriori
Propositions must be empirically verifiable or analytical
David Hume (1711-1776) and Ernsest March (1838-1916) voorgangers van Logical positivists Experience, especially from the sense, is the only source of knowledge (1) All evidence bearing on synthetic statements derives from sense perception, which are true by definition (analytic) (2) Predicates (beweringen) are meaningful only if it is possible to tell by means of sense perception (waarneming) whether something belongs to their extension, predicates must be empirically verifiable.
Verifiability principle: a synthetic statement is meaningful only if it is empirically verifiable
(1) To formulate precisely such central philosophical notions as a criterion of meaningfulness (the verifiability principle) and the distinction between analytic and synthetic claims. (2) To develop precise definitions of central scientific notions such as thoery, explanation, confirmation etc
Logical positivists concern...
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