The Physical properties of water:
1. Knowledge of the physical properties of water:
Water is the most abundant compound on Earth's surface, covering about 70 percent of the planet. In nature, water exists in liquid, solid, and gaseous states. It is a dynamic equilibrium between solid and gas states at standard temperature and pressure. At room temperature it is tasteless and odourless, nearly colourless with a hint of blue. Many substances dissolve in water and is commonly called a universal solvent. Because of this, water in nature and in use is rarely pure and some of its properties may vary slightly from those of pure substances. However there are many compounds that are essentially , if not completely , insoluble in water. Water is the only common substance found naturally in all three common states of matter and is essential for all life on Earth. Molar mass: 18.01528 g/mol
Density: 1,000.00 kg/m³
Boiling point: 99.98 °C
Melting point: 0.0 °C
IUPAC ID: Oxidane, Water
2. Characteristics of water including buoyancy, turbulence and thermal effects : Specific heat :protects from rapid temperature loss, high so takes long to heat up, amount energy takes to raise 1g 1 degree c Heat of vaporization :evaporative cooling, high, pulls heat from body, keeps you cool. universal solvent: water both charges, solute being dissolves, solvent does dissolving, hydrophilic loves water (+/-), hydrophobic hates water (no charge), ampipathic (both Cohesion and adhesion: cohesion water bond to water, adhesion water bond to anything else hydrophilic, capillary action both work to move water up tree roots Surface tension: hydrogen bonds give you surface tension, gives eco systems, water striders
Insulator and density: ice less dense than water, insulates lakes, rigid hydrogen bonds. Buyoancy:
It is the upward force of water that allows objects to float, it. The water that rises is called displaced water
Turbulence can be defined as the unstable flow of water or gas. Not all flow is laminar. In turbulent flow, water swirls erratically. The velocity at a given point can change in magnitude and direction. The onset of turbulent flow depends on the fluids speed, its viscosity, its density, and the size of the obstacle it encounters. A single number, called the Reynolds number, can be used to predict the onset of turbulent flow.
Turbulance present in nature:
Thermal effects of water:
Thermal effects of water on the body is when water is being applied to the body at a temperature higher or just above normal body temperature to create different effects on the body for example; warm water which is neutral (33-37 degrees) is sedating and relaxing to the body while hot water as well as cold water can be used internally and externally .As a result heat increases blood flow , sedate and sooth the body under many other conditions. 3.Chemical properties of water:
Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom.
Water appears in nature in all three common states of matter and may take many different forms on Earth: water vapour and clouds in the sky; seawater and icebergs in the polar oceans; glaciers and rivers in the mountains; and the liquid in aquifers in the ground.
At high temperatures and pressures, such as in the interior of giant planets, it is argued that water exists as ionic water in which the molecules break down into a soup of hydrogen and oxygen ions, and at even higher pressures as super ionic water in which the oxygen crystallises but the hydrogen ions float around freely within the oxygen lattice.
The major chemical and physical properties of water are:
Water is a tasteless, odourless liquid at standard temperature and pressure. The colour of water and ice is, intrinsically, a very...
Wikipedia, hard and soft water
Camelot international – Spa therapy manual and study guide, page 135-141, 155.
Spa therapy Guide by Joan Scott & Andrea Harrison printed 2006, page 148-160, 172-175, 182-201.
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