Water Pollution in China

Topics: People's Republic of China, Water pollution, Yellow River Pages: 7 (2237 words) Published: November 16, 2013
Final Report
Environmental Degradation and Destruction:
Water Pollution in China

Japanese Economy EA

Introduction
As one of the largest growing economies in the world, China, as a developing country, is now experiencing similar problems that other developed nations faced in their past developing phase. Environmental pollution, deforestation, unemployment and bribery issues are common in China, and China’s ability to progress at a rapid pace has been affected by these problems. Out of all these problems, the issue of water pollution in China shall be addressed in this report due to the fact that Japan also faced a similar issue in its own past a couple decades ago in its industrialization phase. The first part of this report introduces the history of China’s economy, where it will focus on how China has been able to progress so rapidly in the last five decades. The second part concentrates on water pollution itself and the consequences that have risen from this issue. After that, an introduction of Japan’s water pollution problem and its solution is given. Additionally, a comparison is made between the two countries, and an implementation plan would be given.

History of Chinese Economy
Recently, China’s economy experienced rapid growth and its GDP (gross domestic product) was the second largest all over the world in 2012. The figure below summarizes the GDP growth rate of China from 1961 to 2011.

World bank (updated May 15 2013)
There are four main points of history from the figure worth pointing out in the Chinese economy. Firstly, in 1958, China experienced a failure in its economy. Before 1958, there was a positive and stable growth rate for its GDP where it was able to support the former Soviet Union, but after that, its GDP fell into the negatives. From 1958 to 1961, China experienced a very rapid pace of economic growth, and this period was known as the “Great Leap Forward”. The second main drop in GDP can be seen during the years of 1967 and 1968, where China experienced a depression period which was caused by the Cultural Revolution of Mao Ze Dong, China’s then political leader. The third main point of change occurred when Chairman Mao passed away and a full-scale recovery of China’s economy was put into place after 1978. This reformation and the introduction of opening-up policies were started by the next leader of China, Deng Xiao Ping. After this period, China has been experiencing positive economic growth, but the fourth main point that is important occurred in the late 1980s and early 1990s. The economy was not doing very well and China started a counter-inflation measure which tightened the economy from 1988 to 1989. Not only that, the Tiananmen Square protest which occurred in July 1989 where the Chinese people who wanted political democratization flooded the area was also a fundamental reason. These people were able to gain military control over the Chinese government, resulting in government confusion and a fall in foreign investment. This caused a temporary decline in the Chinese market economy. However, through Deng’s efforts, the riot was settled in 1992, and China was able to grow its economy rapidly. Another event that is worth pointing out is that China was able to join the WTO (world trade organization) in 2001. This rapid economy growth in China has resulted in many benefits, but it has also caused problems in terms of environmental destruction and resource management.

Water pollution in China: Problems and Issues
In China, the water pollution problem have grown to such an extent that the World Bank has issued a warning for sustainability issues. Almost 500 million people in rural China do not have safe water to use as it has been contaminated by both human and industrial waste. “In August 2009, a thousand villagers gathered outside a government office in Zhentouu township in Hunan Province to protest the presence of the Xiange...
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