Submitted by: Monalisa Detha B.A. (Pass course) Sem. VI
1. Introduction 2. The value of water and wetlands 3. Cost effectiveness of natural infrastructure 4. Status and trends of water bodies and wetlands 5. Economic benefits of restoration of degraded wetlands 6. Ways to improve water resource management 7. Conclusion 8. References
The “nexus” between water, food and energy is one of the most fundamental relationships and challenges for society. The importance of this nexus was re-emphasised at the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20) in June 2012. The outcome document adopted at Rio+20 “The Future We Want” noted: “We recognize the key role that ecosystems play in maintaining water quantity and quality and support actions within respective national boundaries to protect and sustainably manage these ecosystems”
UNCSD (2012, para. 122). Wetlands are a fundamental part of local and global water cycles and are at the heart of this nexus. We also expect wetlands to be key to meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the future Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Wetlands are essential in providing water-related ecosystem services, such as clean water for drinking, water for agriculture, cooling water for the energy sector and regulating water quantity (e.g. flood regulation). In conjunction with their role in erosion control and sediment transport, wetlands also contribute to land formation and therefore resilience to storms. Moreover, they provide a wide range of services that are dependent on water, such as agricultural production, fisheries and tourism.
Notwithstanding the high value of the ecosystem services that wetlands provide to humankind, wetlands continue to be degraded or
References: 1. United Nations World Tourism Organization, “2020 Vision” (www.unwto.org) 2. “Economic Valuation of Environmental Benefits” -www.nemw.org/ERconval.html 3. TEEB Interim Report 4. UNEP-WCMC (2001). World Atlas of Coral Reefs. Cambridge, UK. 5. Turpie (2010) J., Wastewater treatment by wetland, South Africa, http://www.eea.europa.eu/atlas/teeb/water-quality-amelioration-value-of/view.