Topics: Effect size, Scientific method, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Pages: 36 (11372 words) Published: August 27, 2013
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The Wartegg Zeichen Test: A Literature Overview and a Meta-Analysis of Reliability and Validity

Jarna Soilevuo Grønnerød Fredrikstad, Norway

Cato Grønnerød University of Oslo, Norway

Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Cato Grønnerød, Department of Psychology, University of Oslo, P.O.Box 1094 Blindern, NO-0317 Oslo, Norway. E-mail should be addressed to Jarna Soilevuo Grønnerød: jarna.soilevuo@gronnerod.net

Abstract All available studies on the Wartegg Zeichen Test (WZT; Wartegg, 1939) were collected and evaluated through a literature overview and a meta-analysis. The literature overview shows that the history of the WZT reflects the geographical and language-based processes of marginalization where relatively isolated traditions have lived and vanished in different parts of the world. The meta-analytic review indicates a high average inter-scorer reliability of rw = .74 and high validity effect sizes for studies with clear hypotheses of rw = .33. Although the results were strong, we conclude that the WZT research has not been able to establish cumulative knowledge of the method because of the isolation of research traditions.

2 The Wartegg Zeichen Test: A Literature Overview and a Meta-Analysis of Reliability and Validity

The Wartegg Zeichen Test (WZT or Wartegg Drawing Completion Test) was introduced by Ehrig Wartegg (1939) as a method of personality evaluation within the Gestalt psychological tradition in Leipzig, Germany (on the early history of the method, see Klemperer, 2000; Lockot, 2000; Roivainen, 2009). The WZT form consists of a standard A4-sized paper sheet with eight 4 cm x 4 cm squares in two rows on the upper half of the sheet. A simple sign is printed in each of the squares (see Figure 1). The test person’s task is to make a complete drawing using the printed sign as a part of the picture (see Figures 2 and 3), and then give a short written explanation or title of each drawing on the lower part of the sheet. Ehrig Wartegg’s (1939) early work includes of a presentation of how different personality types (synthesizing, analytical and integrated) react in different ways to the small and simple geometrical figure, producing drawings according to the person’s typical ways of perceiving and reacting (see also Roivainen, 2009; Wass & Mattlar, 2000). Theoretically, the Wartegg traditions can be categorized into analytical systems of interpretation that see the printed signs as visual stimuli (e.g. Takala 1957; Takala & Hakkarainen 1953, WZT käsikirja I, 1962) and dynamic systems (e.g. Kinget 1952; Lossen & Schott, 1952; Gardziella 1985; Wass & Mattlar, 2000; Crisi, 1998), which argue that the printed signs have certain symbolic meanings representing certain areas of individual psychology (Tamminen & Lindeman, 2000). As an example of the latter, Kinget (1952) proposes that the printed signs in square 3 give an impression of rigidity, order and progression, linking the interpretation of the test persons’ drawings to achievement motivation. Similarly, the dot in square 1 is placed right in the middle, linking the interpretation to images of the self. The symbolic hypothesis is problematic, however, and has been criticized for the lack of empiric verification (Tamminen & Lindeman 2000). In general, the theoretical groundwork of the Wartegg method is

3 inadequate, reflecting its development within scattered traditions. We will explain this historical process in more detail later in this manuscript. The methods of interpreting the WZT protocols vary from approaches emphasizing qualitative interpretation (e.g., Wartegg 1953;...

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