Risks must not be viewed and assessed in isolation, not only because a single transaction might have a number of risks but also one type of risk can trigger other risks. Since interaction of various risks could result in diminution or increase in risk, the risk management process should recognize and reflect risk interactions in all business activities as appropriate. While assessing and managing risk the management should have an overall view of risks the institution is exposed to. This requires having a structure in place to look at risk interrelationships across the organization.
The risks can be broken into six generic types:-
Market or systematic risk
This risk arises from non-performance by a borrower. It may arise from either an inability or an unwillingness to perform in the pre-committed contracted manner. This can affect the lender holding the loan contract, as well as other lenders to the creditor. Therefore, the financial condition of the borrower as well as the current value of any underlying collateral is of considerable interest to its bank. The real risk from credit is the deviation of portfolio performance from its expected value. Accordingly, credit risk is diversifiable, but difficult to eliminate completely. This is because a portion of the default risk may, in fact, result from the systematic risk outlined above. In addition, the idiosyncratic nature of some portion of these losses remains a problem for creditors in spite of the beneficial effect of diversification on total uncertainty. This is particularly true for banks that lend in local markets and ones that take on highly illiquid assets. In such cases, the credit risk is not easily transferred, and accurate estimates of loss are difficult to obtain.
The risk of asset value change associated with systematic factors. It is sometimes referred to as market risk, which is in fact a somewhat imprecise term. By its nature, this risk can be hedged, but cannot be diversified completely away. In fact, systematic risk can be thought of as undiversifiable risk. All investors assume this type of risk, whenever assets owned or claims issued can change in value as a result of broad economic factors. As such, systematic risk comes in many different forms. For the banking sector, however, two are of greatest concern, namely variations in the general level of interest rates and the relative value of currencies. Because of the bank's dependence on these systematic factors, most try to estimate the impact of these particular systematic risks on performance, attempt to hedge against them and thus limit the sensitivity to variations in undiversifiable factors. Accordingly, most will track interest rate risk closely. They measure and manage the firm's vulnerability to interest rate variation, even though they can not do so perfectly. At the same time, international banks with large currency positions closely monitor their foreign exchange risk and try to manage, as well as limit, their exposure to it. In a similar fashion, some institutions with significant investments in one commodity such as oil, through their lending activity or geographical franchise, concern themselves with commodity price risk. Others with high single-industry concentrations may monitor specific industry concentration risk as well as the forces that affect the fortunes of the industry involved.
Interest Rate risk
Interest Rate Risk is the potential negative impact on the Net Interest Income and it refers to the vulnerability of an institution’s financial condition to the movement in interest rates. Changes in interest rate affect earnings, value of assets, liability off-balance sheet items and cash flow. Currency risk
Foreign exchange risk is the risk that a bank may suffer loss as a result of adverse exchange rate movement during a period in which it...
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