Type II diabetes: obesity and overweight
Type II diabetes: obesity and overweight
Diabetes has become a widespread epidemic, primarily because of the increasing prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes is an endocrine disease in which the body has either a shortage of insulin or a decrease ability to use insulin or both. Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter the cells and be converted into energy. Diabetes can be characterized as a prevailing, incapacitating, and deadly disease. There are a number of risk factors that increase a person’s tendency toward developing type II diabetes. Modifiable risk factors include obesity, physical inactivity and poor dietary habits are just a few. The incidence in overweight and obesity is responsible for the increase in the prevalence and management of type II diabetes, but a lifestyle adjustment aimed at reducing or monitoring weight and increasing physical activity is the resolution for overweight and obese patients with type II diabetes. First, weight management in the prevention and management of type II diabetes through lifestyle modification are essential because being overweight or obese can lead to multiple complicated health issues. “The prevalence of type II diabetes in obese adults is 3–7 times that in normal-weight adults, and those with a BMI > 35 are 20 times as likely to develop diabetes as are those with a BMI between 18.5 and 24.9. In addition, weight gain during adulthood is directly correlated with an increased risk of type II diabetes” (Klein & Sheard, 2004, p. 260). Obesity complicates the management of type II diabetes by increasing insulin resistance and blood glucose concentrations. Patients with diabetes are at high risk for developing cardio-vascular disease. Stroke and ischemic heart disease have the greatest morbidity from diabetes (Klein & Sheard, 2004). Elevated glucose levels help contribute to atherosclerosis and increase the likelihood of macro cardiovascular. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is another complication of diabetes that occurs because of narrowing of the blood vessels. PAD manifests itself by presenting with intermittent pain, aches, or discomfort when walking or exercising, but disappears with rest (Deshpande, Harris-Hayes, & Schootman, 2008). Over time, sustained exposure to increased blood glucose levels in the body causes proteinuria, hypertension, and renal failure. The regulation of blood flow through the kidney is lost, causing excessive perfusion and filtration, which results in micro-albuminuria (Deshpande et al., 2008, p. 1260). Managing diabetes can be challenging. The major goal of treatment plan is to reduce elevation of blood glucose levels to avoid all these potentially life threatening diseases. Secondly, increased physical activity can prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes especially in high-risk individuals, such as those with impaired glucose tolerance. Although regular physical activity may prevent or delay diabetes and its complication, most people with type 2 diabetes are not active (Coldberg, 2010). "Overweight and physical inactivity account for more than 300,000 premature deaths each year in the U.S., second only to tobacco-related deaths. Obesity is an epidemic and should be taken as seriously as any infectious disease epidemic, “says Jeffrey P. Koplan, director of the CDC, and one of the authors of the JAMA article. “Obesity and overweight are linked to the nation's number one killer--heart disease-- as well as diabetes and other chronic conditions."(Must, Spadano, & Coakley, 1999, p. 1525). Type 2 diabetes is also increasing in prevalence in children and adolescents, with increasingly sedentary behavior and obesity as key contributors. There are less opportunities in daily life to burn calories: children watch more television daily; many schools have done away with or cut back on physical education; many...
References: American Diabetes Association. (2002, February). Is weight loss a cure for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 24 no.2 (2), 397-399. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337
Coldberg, S. (2010, December). Exercise and Type II diabetes. Diabetic Care, vol.33 no.12, 147-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc10-990
Deshpande, A. D., Harris-Hayes, M., & Schootman, M. (2008). Epidemiology of diabetes and diabetes related complications. Phys Ther, 88,no.11, 1254-1264.
Klein, S., & Sheard, N. F. (2004, August). Weight management through lifestyle modifications for the prevention and management of Type II diabetes. The American Journal of clinical nutrition, 80, no.2, 257-263. Retrieved from ajcn.nutrition.org
Must, A., Spadano, J., & Coakley, E. H. (1999, October 27). Disease Burden association with overweight and obesity. JAMA, 286 no.16, 1523-1529.
Please join StudyMode to read the full document