The instrument used for the data collection in this study is “Transactional Styles Inventory – Managers (TSI - M)” It helps the respondents examine their interaction and transactional styles. Transactional Analysis concepts are quite popular and two basic concepts can be used to understand interaction styles, the Ego States and the Existential positions. Transactional Analysis (TA), originated and developed by Eric Berne, is a new theory of personality structure and a method of treatment through which one can become aware of problems in one’s own personality and thereby have a better control over interpersonal relationships. There are some ideas and theories in the Western version of TA, which are not in exact tune with the Oriental mind.
An ego-State is defined as a coherent system of:
Each person involved in transactions with others has three ego states:
Some functions of the Parent Ego-State are:
To maintain values that have been thoughtfully evaluated and found to be worth keeping. To test and acquire new values that reflects basic dignity and generates growth and change for the person. o
To initiate, to start, to be first, to care, to risk for others etc
Some functions of the Adult Ego-State are:
To maintain a rational and thoughtful attitude by using enough information, maintaining a wide perspective, and thereby avoiding snap judgments, blame and guilt. o
To get, to organize, and to use accurate information to protect the Child from illusion, prejudice, hate, violence, bigotry, intolerance, discrimination, and needless fear.
Some functions of the Child Ego-State are:
To enjoy the goods things that life offers. To deal with the suffering that life presents with dignity and courage. o
In childhood – to do what they have to do to thrive in good times, survive in bad times—and make the best of that until they are on their own and can make their own changes. o
In adulthood- to change surviving to thriving by examination of their childhood – keep the best – dump the rest draw upon inner strength of spirit and integrity.
Transactional Analysis is basically the study of how people take on certain behaviors, either by accident or from their early caretakers or authority figures and then continues to play them out in their adult lives. It is a model for people to use to work towards ‘autonomy’, a place from where they can choose to live the way they want to and not to be still acting as if they are controlled by past events or messages. Transactional Analysis then is a modern psychotherapy model, which has its own particular language and theory of personality. It states that the person transacts with a person in certain ways, structures their time between life and death in a particular way, plays their own particular games and lives out their own unique script. An understanding of Transactional Analysis can give hope for the person in that they can change their script and choose the way they want to re-write their own life plan, without hanging on to inappropriate behaviors of the past. Each ego state is important. However, the functional or dysfunctional role of these ego states depends on the general life position a person takes. Harris (Pareek, 2002) has conceptualized four primary existential or life positions:
I’m OK — you’re OK.
I’m not OK — you’re OK.
I’m OK — you’re not OK.
I’m not OK —you’re not OK.
James (ibid) has suggested that, in general, the concepts of OK and not OK can be used to understand how bosses behave. Avary (ibid) has similarly proposed OK and not OK dimensions of the six ego states; and Savorgnan (ibid) has discussed the OK and not OK dimensions of the two parent ego states. The figure below shows the four life positions in terms of interaction styles.
The four general interaction styles can be elaborated by combining them with the ego states. Two dimensions of the parent ego state...
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