Trade Unions are the groups , set-up with the aim of trying to create fairness and job security in a workplace.
Section 2(h) of the Trade Union Act, 1926 has defined a trade union as:
“Any combination, whether temporary or permanent, former primarily for the purpose of regulating the relation between workman and workmen or between employers, or for imposing restrictive conditions on the conduct of any trade or business, and includes any federation of two or more trade unionsTrade Unions in India Developed Quite Slowly as compared to Western Nations.”
The First Phase(1850-1900)
The first trade union was founded by Mr N.K. Lokhande in 1890. During this working and living conditions were poor.
To regulate the working hours and other service conditions of the Indian Labours, the Indian Factories Act was enacted in 1881. As a result employment of child labour was prohibited.
Many strikes took place in this decade and taught workers to understand the power of united action.
The Second Phase(1900-1946)
Between 1918 and 1923, many unions came into existence in the country, under the guidance of Mahatma Gandhi like “Spinners and Weavers Union”. This union then federated in to union known as Textile Labour Association in 1920.
In 1920, the First National Trade Union Organisation (AITUC) was established.
In 1926, Trade Union Law came up with the efforts Mr N.N Joshi that became operative from 1927.
In 1928, All India Trade Union Federation (AITUF) was formed.
The Third Phase(1947)
The third phase began with the emergence of independent India 1947.
The Partition of the country affected the trade union movement particularly between Punjab and Bengal.
There are as many as ten central trade union Organizations in the country but four major federations which were in existence for a long time are:-
All India Trade Union Congress(AITUC)
Indian National Trade Union Congress (INTUC)
Hind Mazdoor Sabha(HMS)