Topics: Tomato / Pages: 38 (9309 words) / Published: Sep 4th, 2014
The tomato is the edible, often red fruit/berry of the nightshade Solanum lycopersicum,[1][2] commonly known as a tomato plant. The species originated in the South American Andes[2] and its use as a food originated in Mexico, and spread throughout the world following the Spanish colonization of the Americas. Its many varieties are now widely grown, sometimes in greenhouses in cooler climates.

The tomato is consumed in diverse ways, including raw, as an ingredient in many dishes, sauces, salads, and drinks. While it is botanically a fruit, it is considered a vegetable for culinary purposes (as well as under U.S. customs regulations, see Nix v. Hedden), which has caused some confusion. The fruit is rich in lycopene, which may have beneficial health effects.

The tomato belongs to the nightshade family, Solanaceae.[1][3] The plants typically grow to 1–3 meters (3–10 ft) in height and have a weak stem that often sprawls over the ground and vines over other plants. It is a perennial in its native habitat, although often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual. An average common tomato weighs approximately 100 grams (4 oz).[4][5]
The word "tomato" comes from the Spanish tomate, which in turn comes from the Nahuatl word tomatotl /aːˈtomatl͡ɬ/.[6] It first appeared in print in 1595. A member of the deadly nightshade family, tomatoes were erroneously thought to be poisonous (although the leaves are) by Europeans who were suspicious of their bright, shiny fruit. Native versions were small, like cherry tomatoes, and most likely yellow rather than red. The tomato is native to western South America and Central America.[6]

Aztecs and other peoples in Mesoamerica used the fruit in their cooking. The exact date of domestication is unknown: by 500 BC, it was already being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas.[7]:13 The Pueblo people are thought to have believed that those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were

References: ^ Jump up to: a b c d e f g h i j k l Smith, A. F. (1994). The Tomato in America: Early History, Culture, and Cookery. Columbia SC, USA: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-57003-000-6.[page needed] Jump up ^ Donnelly, L Jump up ^ Gentilcore, David (2010) A History of the Tomato in Italy Pomodoro! New York, NY: Columbia University Press, ISBN 023115206X. Jump up ^ "Syria under the last five Turkish Sultans". Appletons ' Journal 1. D. Appleton and Co. 1876. p. 519. Jump up ^ "Natural History, Science, &c". The Friend 54: 223. 1881. Jump up ^ Kolata, Gina (28 June 2012). "Flavor Is Price of Scarlet Hue of Tomatoes, Study Finds". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2012. ^ Jump up to: a b c Allen, A. (August 2008). "A Passion for Tomatoes". Smithsonian magazine. Jump up ^ "Production of Tomato by countries". Food and Agriculture Organization. 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2014. Jump up ^ Pfleger, F. L.; Zeyen, R. J. (2008). "Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease". University of Minnesota Extension. Retrieved 23 June 2012. Jump up ^ Hahn, J.; Fetzer, J. (2009). "Slugs in Home Gardens". University of Minnesota Extension. Archived from the original on 2011-03-11. Retrieved 23 June 2012. Jump up ^ Narvaez-Vasquez, J.; Orozco-Cardenas, M. L. (2008). "15 Systemins and AtPeps: Defense-related Peptide Signals". In Schaller, A. Induced Plant Resistance to Herbivory. ISBN 978-1-4020-8181-1. Jump up ^ Riotte, Louise (February–March 1992). "Carrots Love Tomatoes". Jump up ^ Tomato Casual » Boost Your Tomatoes with Companion Planting! – Part 1. (6 May 2008). Retrieved on 5 September 2013. Jump up ^ Vegetable Garden Companion Planting – Plant Tomatoes, Borage, and Squash Together. (16 July 2013). Retrieved on 5 September 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Companion Planting. (15 January 2009). Retrieved on 5 September 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b Sharma, V. P. (2012). Nature at Work – the Ongoing Saga of Evolution. Springer. p. 41. ISBN 978-81-8489-991-7. Jump up ^ Bittman, Mark (14 June 2011). "The True Cost of Tomatoes". New York Times. Jump up ^ Bittman, Mark (17 August 2013). "Not All Industrial Food Is Evil". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 August 2013. Jump up ^ University of California Agriculture and Natural Resources (1994-05-21). "California Agriculture Online". doi:10.1016/S0140-6736. Retrieved 2013-10-21. ^ Jump up to: a b "FAOSTAT: Production-Crops, 2012 data". Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2014. ^ Jump up to: a b c "FAOSTAT: Production-Crops, 2012 data", Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, August 2014 Jump up ^ Redenbaugh, K.; Hiatt, B.; Martineau, B.; Kramer, M.; Sheehy, R.; Sanders, R.; Houck, C.; Emlay, D Jump up ^ Maccrae, F. (28 April 2008). "The secret of eternal youth? Try a tomato". Jump up ^ Rao, A. V.; Balachandran, B. (2002). "Role of oxidative stress and antioxidants in neurodegenerative diseases". Nutritional Neuroscience 5 (5): 291–309. doi:10.1080/1028415021000033767. PMID 12385592. Jump up ^ Valero MA, Vidal A, Burgos R, et al. (2011). "[Meta-analysis on the role of lycopene in type 2 diabetes mellitus]". Nutr Hosp (Meta-analysis) (in Spanish; Castilian) 26 (6): 1236–41. doi:10.1590/S0212-16112011000600007. PMID 22411366. Jump up ^ Parnell, Tracy L.; Suslow, Trevor V.; Harris, Linda J. (March 2004). "Tomatoes:Safe Methods to Store, Preserve, and Enjoy". ANR Catalog. University of California: Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved 18 February 2013. Jump up ^ How To Cook. Cooks Illustrated (1 July 2008). Retrieved on 5 September 2013. ^ Jump up to: a b c Mcgee, H. (29 July 2009). "Accused, Yes, but Probably Not a Killer". The New York Times. Retrieved 26 March 2010. ^ Jump up to: a b Barceloux, D. G. (2009). "Potatoes, Tomatoes, and Solanine Toxicity (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanum lycopersicum L.)". Disease-a-Month 55 (6): 391–402. doi:10.1016/j.disamonth.2009.03.009. PMID 19446683. Jump up ^ Brevitz, B. (2004). Hound Health Handbook: The Definitive Guide to Keeping your Dog Happy. Workman Publishing Company. p. 404. ISBN 076112795X. Jump up ^ Acquaah, G. (2002). Horticulture: Principles and Practices. New Jersey: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0130331252. Jump up ^ Ramanujan, K. (30 January 2007). "Tomato genome project gets $1.8M". Archived from the original on 2010-07-13. Retrieved 27 October 2008. Jump up ^ Hammerschmidt, D.; Franklin, M. (2005). "About the cover illustration". Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 146 (4): 251–252. doi:10.1016/j.lab.2005.08.010. PMID 16194687. David Gentilcore. Pomodoro! A History of the Tomato in Italy (Columbia University Press, 2010), scholarly history External links

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